## List of Excel Math and Trigonometry Functions with Syntax and Arguments

This reference table lists all officially documented Math and Trigonometry Functions. It is based on the Excel Help documentation and linked in each row when clicking on the function name. Export the table and/or display additional columns via the symbols to the top right of the table. Please report errors or inconsistencies via the comment function at the bottom of this page. Also check the main table with List of all Excel Functions.

#Excel FunctionDescriptionSyntax with ArgumentsSyntax onlyArguments only
1ABSReturns the absolute value of a number=ABS(numbernumber [required]: The real number of which you want the absolute value.)=ABS(number)
• number (required): The real number of which you want the absolute value.
2ACOSReturns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number=ACOS(numbernumber [required]: The cosine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.)=ACOS(number)
• number (required): The cosine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.
3ACOSHReturns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number=ACOSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number equal to or greater than 1.)=ACOSH(number)
• number (required): Any real number equal to or greater than 1.
4ACOTReturns the principal value of the arccotangent, or inverse cotangent, of a number=ACOT(numbernumber [required]: Number is the cotangent of the angle you want.)=ACOT(number)
• number (required): Number is the cotangent of the angle you want.
5ACOTHReturns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number=ACOTH(numbernumber [required]: The absolute value of Number must be greater than 1.)=ACOTH(number)
• number (required): The absolute value of Number must be greater than 1.
6AGGREGATEReturns an aggregate in a list or database=AGGREGATE(function_numfunction_num [required]: A number 1 to 19 that specifies which function to use., optionsoptions [required]: A numerical value that determines which values to ignore in the evaluation range for the function., ref1ref1 [required]: The first numeric argument for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value.], ...)=AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], ...)
• function_num (required): A number 1 to 19 that specifies which function to use.
• options (required): A numerical value that determines which values to ignore in the evaluation range for the function.
• ref1 (required): The first numeric argument for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value.
• ref2 (optional): Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value.
7ARABICConverts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral=ARABIC(texttext [required]: A string enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (""), or a reference to a cell containing text.)=ARABIC(text)
• text (required): A string enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (""), or a reference to a cell containing text.
8ASINReturns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number=ASIN(numbernumber [required]: The sine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.)=ASIN(number)
• number (required): The sine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.
9ASINHReturns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number=ASINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=ASINH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
10ATANReturns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number. =ATAN(numbernumber [required]: The tangent of the angle you want.)=ATAN(number)
• number (required): The tangent of the angle you want.
11ATAN2Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x- and y-coordinates=ATAN2(x_numx_num [required]: The x-coordinate of the point., y_numy_num [required]: The y-coordinate of the point.)=ATAN2(x_num, y_num)
• x_num (required): The x-coordinate of the point.
• y_num (required): The y-coordinate of the point.
12ATANHReturns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. =ATANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number between 1 and -1.)=ATANH(number)
• number (required): Any real number between 1 and -1.
13BASEConverts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)=BASE(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to convert., radixradix [required]: The base radix that you want to convert the number into., [min_lengthmin_length [optional]: The minimum length of the returned string.])=BASE(number, radix, [min_length])
• number (required): The number that you want to convert.
• radix (required): The base radix that you want to convert the number into.
• min_length (optional): The minimum length of the returned string.
14CEILINGReturns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING(numbernumber [required]: Value you want to round., significancesignificance [required]: Multiple to which you want to round.)=CEILING(number, significance)
• number (required): Value you want to round.
• significance (required): Multiple to which you want to round.
15CEILING.MATHRounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING.MATH(numbernumber [required]: Number must be less than 9., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which Number is to be rounded.], [modemode [optional]: For negative numbers, controls whether Number is rounded toward or away from zero.])=CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])
• number (required): Number must be less than 9.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which Number is to be rounded.
• mode (optional): For negative numbers, controls whether Number is rounded toward or away from zero.
16CEILING.PRECISEReturns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which number is to be rounded.
17COMBINReturns the number of combinations for a given number of items=COMBIN(numbernumber [required]: The number of items., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: The number of items in each combination.)=COMBIN(number, number_chosen)
• number (required): The number of items.
• number_chosen (required): The number of items in each combination.
18COMBINAReturns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items=COMBINA(numbernumber [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0, and greater than or equal to Number_chosen., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0.)=COMBINA(number, number_chosen)
• number (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0, and greater than or equal to Number_chosen.
• number_chosen (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0.
19COSReturns the cosine of the given angle=COS(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cosine.)=COS(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the cosine.
20COSHReturns the hyperbolic cosine of a number=COSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.)=COSH(number)
• number (required): Any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.
21COTReturn the cotangent of an angle specified in radians=COT(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cotangent.)=COT(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the cotangent.
22COTHReturn the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle=COTH(numbernumber [required]: Number from which to calculate hyperbolic cotangent.)=COTH(number)
• number (required): Number from which to calculate hyperbolic cotangent.
23CSCReturns the cosecant of an angle specified in radians=CSC(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate cosecant.)=CSC(number)
• number (required): Number from wich to calculate cosecant.
24CSCHReturn the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle specified in radians=CSCH(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate hyperbolic cosecant.)=CSCH(number)
• number (required): Number from wich to calculate hyperbolic cosecant.
25DECIMALConverts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number=DECIMAL(texttext [required]: Text representation of a number., radixradix [required]: Radix must be an integer.)=DECIMAL(text, radix)
• text (required): Text representation of a number.
26DEGREESConverts radians into degrees=DEGREES(angleangle [required]: The angle in radians that you want to convert.)=DEGREES(angle)
• angle (required): The angle in radians that you want to convert.
27EVENReturns number rounded up to the nearest even integer=EVEN(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)=EVEN(number)
• number (required): The value to round.
28EXPReturns e raised to the power of number=EXP(numbernumber [required]: The exponent applied to the base e.)=EXP(number)
• number (required): The exponent applied to the base e.
29FACTReturns the factorial of a number=FACT(numbernumber [required]: The nonnegative number for which you want the factorial.)=FACT(number)
• number (required): The nonnegative number for which you want the factorial.
30FACTDOUBLEReturns the double factorial of a number=FACTDOUBLE(numbernumber [required]: The value for which to return the double factorial.)=FACTDOUBLE(number)
• number (required): The value for which to return the double factorial.
31FLOOR.MATHRound a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=FLOOR.MATH(numbernumber [required]: The number to be rounded down., significancesignificance [required]: The multiple to which you want to round., modemode [required]: The direction (toward or away from 0) to round negative numbers.)=FLOOR.MATH(number, significance, mode)
• number (required): The number to be rounded down.
• significance (required): The multiple to which you want to round.
• mode (required): The direction (toward or away from 0) to round negative numbers.
32FLOOR.PRECISEReturns a number that is rounded down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=FLOOR.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which number is to be rounded.
33GCDReturns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers=GCD(number1number1 [required]: The first number from which to determine the greatest common divisor of two or more integer, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=GCD(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number from which to determine the greatest common divisor of two or more integer
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
34INTRounds a number down to the nearest integer=INT(numbernumber [required]: The real number you want to round down to an integer.)=INT(number)
• number (required): The real number you want to round down to an integer.
35ISO.CEILINGReturns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=ISO.CEILING(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The optional multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=ISO.CEILING(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The optional multiple to which number is to be rounded.
36LCMReturns the least common multiple of integers=LCM(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want the least common multiple. , [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=LCM(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want the least common multiple.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
37LETAssigns names to calculation results to allows storing intermediate calculations, values, or defining names inside a formula=LET(namename [required]: Name to assign, name_valuename_value [required]: Value calculation to assign to value, calculationcalculation [required]: Calculation for assigned names/ values)=LET(name, name_value, calculation)
• name (required): Name to assign
• name_value (required): Value calculation to assign to value
• calculation (required): Calculation for assigned names/ values
38LNReturns the natural logarithm of a number=LN(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.)=LN(number)
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.
39LOGReturns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify=LOG(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the logarithm., [basebase [optional]: The base of the logarithm.])=LOG(number, [base])
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the logarithm.
• base (optional): The base of the logarithm.
40LOG10Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number=LOG10(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm.)=LOG10(number)
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm.
41MDETERMReturns the matrix determinant of an array=MDETERM(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)=MDETERM(array)
• array (required): A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.
42MINVERSEReturns the inverse matrix for a matrix stored in an array=MINVERSE(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)=MINVERSE(array)
• array (required): A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.
43MMULTReturns the matrix product of two arrays=MMULT(array1array1 [required]: The first arrays you want to multiply., array2array2 [required]: The second arrays you want to multiply.)=MMULT(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first arrays you want to multiply.
• array2 (required): The second arrays you want to multiply.
44MODReturns the remainder after number is divided by divisor=MOD(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want to find the remainder., divisordivisor [required]: The number by which you want to divide number.)=MOD(number, divisor)
• number (required): The number for which you want to find the remainder.
• divisor (required): The number by which you want to divide number.
45MROUNDReturns a number rounded to the desired multiple=MROUND(numbernumber [required]: The value to round., multiplemultiple [required]: The multiple to which you want to round number.)=MROUND(number, multiple)
• number (required): The value to round.
• multiple (required): The multiple to which you want to round number.
46MULTINOMIALReturns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials=MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)=MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)
47MUNITReturns the unit matrix for the specified dimension=MUNIT(dimensiondimension [required]: Dimension is an integer specifying the dimension of the unit matrix that you want to return. It returns an array. The dimension has to be greater than zero.)=MUNIT(dimension)
• dimension (required): Dimension is an integer specifying the dimension of the unit matrix that you want to return. It returns an array. The dimension has to be greater than zero.
48ODDReturns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer=ODD(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)=ODD(number)
• number (required): The value to round.
49PIReturns pi (3.14159265358979) with 15 digits=PI()=PI()
50POWERReturns the result of a number raised to a power=POWER(numbernumber [required]: The base number., powerpower [required]: The exponent to which the base number is raised.)=POWER(number, power)
• number (required): The base number.
• power (required): The exponent to which the base number is raised.
51PRODUCTMultiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product. =PRODUCT(number1number1 [required]: The first number or range that you want to multiply., [number2], ...)=PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number or range that you want to multiply.
52QUOTIENTReturns the integer portion of a division=QUOTIENT(numeratornumerator [required]: The dividend., denominatordenominator [required]: The divisor)=QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)
• numerator (required): The dividend.
• denominator (required): The divisor
• angle (required): An angle in degrees that you want to convert.
55RANDARRAYReturns an array of random numbers. =RANDARRAY([rowsrows [optional]: The number of rows to be returned], [columnscolumns [optional]: The number of columns to be returned], [minmin [optional]: The minimum number you would like returned], [maxmax [optional]: The maximum number you would like returned], [whole_numberwhole_number [optional]: Return a whole number or a decimal value])=RANDARRAY([rows], [columns], [min], [max], [whole_number])
• rows (optional): The number of rows to be returned
• columns (optional): The number of columns to be returned
• min (optional): The minimum number you would like returned
• max (optional): The maximum number you would like returned
• whole_number (optional): Return a whole number or a decimal value
56RANDBETWEENReturns a random integer number between the numbers you specify=RANDBETWEEN(bottombottom [required]: The smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return., toptop [required]: The largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.)=RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top)
• bottom (required): The smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.
• top (required): The largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.
57ROMANConverts an arabic numeral to roman, as text=ROMAN(numbernumber [required]: The Arabic numeral you want converted., [formform [optional]: A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want.])=ROMAN(number, [form])
• number (required): The Arabic numeral you want converted.
• form (optional): A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want.
58ROUNDRounds a number to a specified number of digits=ROUND(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to round., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.)=ROUND(number, num_digits)
• number (required): The number that you want to round.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.
59ROUNDDOWNRounds a number down, toward zero=ROUNDDOWN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded down., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)=ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)
• number (required): Any real number that you want rounded down.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round number.
60ROUNDUPRounds a number up, away from 0 (zero)=ROUNDUP(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded up., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)=ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)
• number (required): Any real number that you want rounded up.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round number.
61SECReturns the secant of an angle=SEC(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the secant.)=SEC(number)
• number (required): Number is the angle in radians for which you want the secant.
62SECHReturns the hyperbolic secant of an angle=SECH(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the hyperbolic secant.)=SECH(number)
• number (required): Number is the angle in radians for which you want the hyperbolic secant.
63SEQUENCEGenerates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4=SEQUENCE(rowsrows [required]: The number of rows to be returned, [columnscolumns [required]: The number of columns to be returned], [startstart [optional]: Sequence start value], [stepstep [optional]: Sequence Increments])=SEQUENCE(rows, [columns], [start], [step])
• rows (required): The number of rows to be returned
• columns (required): The number of columns to be returned
• start (optional): Sequence start value
• step (optional): Sequence Increments
64SERIESSUMReturns the sum of a power series based on approximation by defined power series expansion formula=SERIESSUM(xx [required]: The input value to the power series., nn [required]: The initial power to which you want to raise x., mm [required]: The step by which to increase n for each term in the series., coefficientscoefficients [required]: A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.)=SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients)
• coefficients (required): A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.
• x (required): The input value to the power series.
• n (required): The initial power to which you want to raise x.
• m (required): The step by which to increase n for each term in the series.
65SIGNDetermines the sign of a number=SIGN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=SIGN(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
66SINReturns the sine of the given angle=SIN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the sine.)=SIN(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the sine.
67SINHReturns the hyperbolic sine of a number=SINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=SINH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
68SQRTReturns a positive square root=SQRT(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want the square root.)=SQRT(number)
• number (required): The number for which you want the square root.
69SQRTPIReturns the square root of (number * pi)=SQRTPI(numbernumber [required]: The number by which pi is multiplied.)=SQRTPI(number)
• number (required): The number by which pi is multiplied.
70SUBTOTALReturns a subtotal in a list or database=SUBTOTAL(function_numfunction_num [required]: The number 1-11 or 101-111 that specifies the function to use for the subtotal., ref1ref1 [required]: The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Additional optional references], ...)=SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, [ref2], ...)
• function_num (required): The number 1-11 or 101-111 that specifies the function to use for the subtotal.
• ref1 (required): The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal.
• ref2 (optional): Additional optional references
71SUMAdds values, cell references or ranges or a mix of all three=SUM(number1number1 [required]: First number to add,[number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers],...)=SUM(number1,[number2],...)
• number1 (required): First number to add
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
72SUMIFSum the values in a range that meet criteria that you specify=SUMIF(rangerange [required]: The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added., [sum_rangesum_range [optional]: The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument.])=SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])
• range (required): The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria.
• criteria (required): The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added.
• sum_range (optional): The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument.
73SUMIFSSums all of its arguments that meet multiple criteria. =SUMIFS(sum_rangesum_range [required]: The range of cells to sum., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [optional]: The range that is tested using CRITERIA1, criteria1criteria1 [optional]: The criteria that defines which cells in CRITERIA_RANGE1 will be added., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional critiera and criteria ranges], ...)=SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• sum_range (required): The range of cells to sum.
• criteria_range1 (optional): The range that is tested using CRITERIA1
• criteria1 (optional): The criteria that defines which cells in CRITERIA_RANGE1 will be added.
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional optional critiera and criteria ranges
74SUMPRODUCTReturns the sum of the products of corresponding ranges or arrays=SUMPRODUCT(array1array1 [required]: The first array argument whose components you want to multiply and then add., [array2array2 [optional]: Additional optional array argument], ...)=SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], ...)
• array1 (required): The first array argument whose components you want to multiply and then add.
• array2 (optional): Additional optional array argument
75SUMSQReturns the sum of the squares of the arguments=SUMSQ(number1number1 [required]: Number arguments for which you want the sum of the squares, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number arguments for which you want the sum of the squares
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
76SUMX2MY2Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMX2MY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
77SUMX2PY2Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMX2PY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
78SUMXMY2Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMXMY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
79TANReturns the tangent of the given angle=TAN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the tangent.)=TAN(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the tangent.
80TANHReturns the hyperbolic tangent of a number=TANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=TANH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
81TRUNCTruncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number=TRUNC(numbernumber [required]: The number you want to truncate., [num_digitsnum_digits [optional]: A number specifying the precision of the truncation.])=TRUNC(number, [num_digits])
• number (required): The number you want to truncate.
• num_digits (optional): A number specifying the precision of the truncation.

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