This reference table lists all officially documented Excel Functions. It is based on the Excel Help documentation and linked in each row when clicking on the function name. Separate category pages can be reached via the hyperlinks in 'Category' column. Export the table and/or display additional columns via the symbols to the top right of the table. Please report errors or inconsistencies via the comment function at the bottom of this page.
#  Excel Function  Category  Description  Syntax with Arguments  Syntax only  Arguments only 

1  ABS  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the absolute value of a number  =ABS(numbernumber [required]: The real number of which you want the absolute value.)  =ABS(number) 

2  ACCRINT  Financial  Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest  =ACCRINT(issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_interestfirst_interest [required]: The security's first interest date., settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., parpar [required]: The security's par value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.], [calc_methodcalc_method [optional]: A logical value that specifies the way to calculate the total accrued interest when the date of settlement is later than the date of first_interest.])  =ACCRINT(issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, [basis], [calc_method]) 

3  ACCRINTM  Financial  Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity  =ACCRINTM(issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., settlementsettlement [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., parpar [required]: The security's par value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =ACCRINTM(issue, settlement, rate, par, [basis]) 

4  ACOS  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number  =ACOS(numbernumber [required]: The cosine of the angle you want and must be from 1 to 1.)  =ACOS(number) 

5  ACOSH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number  =ACOSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number equal to or greater than 1.)  =ACOSH(number) 

6  ACOT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the principal value of the arccotangent, or inverse cotangent, of a number  =ACOT(numbernumber [required]: Number is the cotangent of the angle you want.)  =ACOT(number) 

7  ACOTH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number  =ACOTH(numbernumber [required]: The absolute value of Number must be greater than 1.)  =ACOTH(number) 

8  ADDRESS  Lookup and Reference  Obtain the address of a cell in a worksheet, given specified row and column numbers  =ADDRESS(row_numrow_num [required]: A numeric value that specifies the row number to use in the cell reference., column_numcolumn_num [required]: A numeric value that specifies the column number to use in the cell reference., [abs_numabs_num [optional]: A numeric value that specifies the type of reference to return.], [a1a1 [optional]: A logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style.], [sheet_textsheet_text [optional]: A text value that specifies the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference.])  =ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text]) 

9  AGGREGATE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns an aggregate in a list or database  =AGGREGATE(function_numfunction_num [required]: A number 1 to 19 that specifies which function to use., optionsoptions [required]: A numerical value that determines which values to ignore in the evaluation range for the function., ref1ref1 [required]: The first numeric argument for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value.], ...)  =AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], ...) 

10  AMORDEGRC  Financial  Returns the depreciation for each accounting period  =AMORDEGRC(costcost [required]: The cost of the asset., date_purchaseddate_purchased [required]: The date of the purchase of the asset., first_periodfirst_period [required]: The date of the end of the first period., salvagesalvage [required]: The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset., periodperiod [required]: The period., raterate [required]: The rate of depreciation., [basisbasis [optional]: The year basis to be used.])  =AMORDEGRC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis]) 

11  AMORLINC  Financial  Returns the depreciation for each accounting period  =AMORLINC(costcost [required]: The cost of the asset., date_purchaseddate_purchased [required]: The date of the purchase of the asset., first_periodfirst_period [required]: The date of the end of the first period., salvagesalvage [required]: The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset., periodperiod [required]: The period., raterate [required]: The rate of depreciation., [basisbasis [optional]: The year basis to be used.])  =AMORLINC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis]) 

12  AND  Logical  Check if all conditions in a test are TRUE  =AND (logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.], ...)  =AND (logical1, [logical2], ...) 

13  ARABIC  Math and Trigonometry  Converts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral  =ARABIC(texttext [required]: A string enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (""), or a reference to a cell containing text.)  =ARABIC(text) 

14  AREAS  Lookup and Reference  Returns the number of areas in a reference  =AREAS(referencereference [required]: A reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas.)  =AREAS(reference) 

15  ARRAYTOTEXT  Text  Returns an array of text values from any specified range  =ARRAYTOTEXT(arrayarray [required]: The array to return as text., [formatformat [optional]: The format of the returned data as 0 (default) or 1 (strict format including escape characters)])  =ARRAYTOTEXT(array, [format]) 

16  ASC  Text  Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) characters to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters For doublebyte character set  =ASC(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)  =ASC(text) 

17  ASIN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number  =ASIN(numbernumber [required]: The sine of the angle you want and must be from 1 to 1.)  =ASIN(number) 

18  ASINH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number  =ASINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)  =ASINH(number) 

19  ATAN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number.  =ATAN(numbernumber [required]: The tangent of the angle you want.)  =ATAN(number) 

20  ATAN2  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x and ycoordinates  =ATAN2(x_numx_num [required]: The xcoordinate of the point., y_numy_num [required]: The ycoordinate of the point.)  =ATAN2(x_num, y_num) 

21  ATANH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.  =ATANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number between 1 and 1.)  =ATANH(number) 

22  AVEDEV  Statistical  Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean  =AVEDEV(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations., [number2], ...)  =AVEDEV(number1, [number2], ...) 

23  AVERAGE  Statistical  returns the average of those numbers  =AVERAGE(number1number1 [required]: The first number, cell reference, or range for which you want the average., [number2number2 [optional]: Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations.], ...)  =AVERAGE(number1, [number2], ...) 

24  AVERAGEA  Statistical  Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of the values in the list of arguments  =AVERAGEA(value1value1 [required]: Calculates the average of the values in the list of arguments, [value2value2 [optional]: Optional additional value], ...)  =AVERAGEA(value1, [value2], ...) 

25  AVERAGEIF  Statistical  Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria  =AVERAGEIF(rangerange [required]: One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that defines which cells are averaged., [average_rangeaverage_range [optional]: The actual set of cells to average.])  =AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range]) 

26  AVERAGEIFS  Statistical  Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria  =AVERAGEIFS(average_rangeaverage_range [required]: One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Range in which to evaluate the associated crite. Additional ranges are optional, criteria1criteria1 [required]: Criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that define which cells will be averaged., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional range/criteria], ...)  =AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

27  BAHTTEXT  Text  Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix of "Baht  =BAHTTEXT(numbernumber [required]: A number you want to convert to text, or a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number.)  =BAHTTEXT(number) 

28  BASE  Math and Trigonometry  Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)  =BASE(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to convert., radixradix [required]: The base radix that you want to convert the number into., [min_lengthmin_length [optional]: The minimum length of the returned string.])  =BASE(number, radix, [min_length]) 

29  BESSELI  Engineering  Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments  =BESSELI(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the Bessel function.)  =BESSELI(x, n) 

30  BESSELJ  Engineering  Returns the Bessel function  =BESSELJ(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the Bessel function.)  =BESSELJ(x, n) 

31  BESSELK  Engineering  Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel functions evaluated for purely imaginary arguments  =BESSELK(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the function.)  =BESSELK(x, n) 

32  BESSELY  Engineering  Returns the Bessel function, which is also called the Weber function or the Neumann function  =BESSELY(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the function.)  =BESSELY(x, n) 

33  BETA.DIST  Statistical  Returns the beta distribution  =BETA.DIST(xx [required]: The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function , alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])  =BETA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative, [a], [b]) 

34  BETA.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the beta cumulative probability density function (BETA  =BETA.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the beta distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])  =BETA.INV(probability, alpha, beta, [a], [b]) 

35  BETADIST  Compatibility  Returns the cumulative beta probability density function  =BETADIST(xx [required]: The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter of the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])  =BETADIST(x, alpha, beta, [a], [b]) 

36  BETAINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function for a specified beta distribution  =BETAINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the beta distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])  =BETAINV(probability, alpha, beta, [a], [b]) 

37  BIN2DEC  Engineering  Converts a binary number to decimal  =BIN2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert. )  =BIN2DEC(number) 

38  BIN2HEX  Engineering  Converts a binary number to hexadecimal  =BIN2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =BIN2HEX(number, [places]) 

39  BIN2OCT  Engineering  Converts a binary number to octal  =BIN2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =BIN2OCT(number, [places]) 

40  BINOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability  =BINOM.DIST(number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success on each trial., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =BINOM.DIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative) 

41  BINOM.DIST.RANGE  Statistical  Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution  =BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success in each trial., number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., [number_s2number_s2 [optional]: If provided, returns the probability that the number of successful trials will fall between Number_s and number_s2.])  =BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials, probability_s, number_s, [number_s2]) 

42  BINOM.INV  Statistical  Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value  =BINOM.INV(trialstrials [required]: The number of Bernoulli trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success on each trial., alphaalpha [required]: The criterion value.)  =BINOM.INV(trials, probability_s, alpha) 

43  BINOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability  =BINOMDIST(number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success on each trial., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =BINOMDIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative) 

44  BITAND  Engineering  Returns a bitwise 'AND' of two numbers  =BITAND(number1number1 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.)  =BITAND(number1, number2) 

45  BITLSHIFT  Engineering  Returns a number shifted left by the specified number of bits  =BITLSHIFT(numbernumber [required]: Number must be an integer greater than or equal to 0., shift_amountshift_amount [required]: Shift_amount must be an integer.)  =BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount) 

46  BITOR  Engineering  Returns a bitwise 'OR' of two numbers  =BITOR(number1number1 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.)  =BITOR(number1, number2) 

47  BITRSHIFT  Engineering  Returns a number shifted right by the specified number of bits  =BITRSHIFT(numbernumber [required]: Must be an integer greater than or equal to 0., shift_amountshift_amount [required]: Must be an integer.)  =BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount) 

48  BITXOR  Engineering  Returns a bitwise 'XOR' of two numbers  =BITXOR(number1number1 [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0.)  =BITXOR(number1, number2) 

49  CALL  Addin and Automation  Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource  =CALL(module_textmodule_text [required]: Quoted text specifying the name of the dynamic link library (DLL) that contains the procedure in Microsoft Excel for Windows., procedureprocedure [required]: Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows., type_texttype_text [required]: Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL or code resource., [argument1argument1 [optional]: Arguments to be passed to the procedure.] ,...])  =CALL(module_text, procedure, type_text, [argument1] ,...]) 

50  CEILING  Math and Trigonometry  Returns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance  =CEILING(numbernumber [required]: Value you want to round., significancesignificance [required]: Multiple to which you want to round.)  =CEILING(number, significance) 

51  CEILING.MATH  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance  =CEILING.MATH(numbernumber [required]: Number must be less than 9., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which Number is to be rounded.], [modemode [optional]: For negative numbers, controls whether Number is rounded toward or away from zero.])  =CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode]) 

52  CEILING.PRECISE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance  =CEILING.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])  =CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance]) 

53  CELL  IS Functions and Information  Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell  =CELL(info_typeinfo_type [required]: A text value that specifies what type of cell information you want to return., [referencereference [optional]: The cell that you want information about.])  =CELL(info_type, [reference]) 

54  CHAR  Text  Returns the character specified by a number  =CHAR(numbernumber [required]: A number between 1 and 255 specifying which character you want.)  =CHAR(number) 

55  CHIDIST  Compatibility  Returns the righttailed probability of the chisquared distribution  =CHIDIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)  =CHIDIST(x, deg_freedom) 

56  CHIINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the righttailed probability of the chisquared distribution  =CHIINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chisquared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)  =CHIINV(probability, deg_freedom) 

57  CHISQ.DIST  Statistical  Returns the chisquared distribution  =CHISQ.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =CHISQ.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative) 

58  CHISQ.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the righttailed probability of the chisquared distribution  =CHISQ.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)  =CHISQ.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom) 

59  CHISQ.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the lefttailed probability of the chisquared distribution  =CHISQ.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chisquared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)  =CHISQ.INV(probability, deg_freedom) 

60  CHISQ.INV.RT  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the righttailed probability of the chisquared distribution  =CHISQ.INV.RT(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chisquared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)  =CHISQ.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom) 

61  CHISQ.TEST  Statistical  Returns the test for independence  =CHISQ.TEST(actual_rangeactual_range [required]: The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values., expected_rangeexpected_range [required]: The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.)  =CHISQ.TEST(actual_range, expected_range) 

62  CHITEST  Compatibility  Returns the test for independence  =CHITEST(actual_rangeactual_range [required]: The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values., expected_rangeexpected_range [required]: The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.)  =CHITEST(actual_range, expected_range) 

63  CHOOSE  Lookup and Reference  Uses index_num to return a value from the list of value arguments  =CHOOSE(index_numindex_num [required]: Specifies which value argument is selected., value1value1 [required]: Value arguments from which CHOOSE selects a value or an action to perform based on index_num., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional values], ...)  =CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2], ...) 

64  CLEAN  Text  Removes all nonprintable characters from text  =CLEAN(texttext [required]: Any worksheet information from which you want to remove nonprintable characters.)  =CLEAN(text) 

65  CODE  Text  Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string  =CODE(texttext [required]: The text for which you want the code of the first character.)  =CODE(text) 

66  COLUMN  Lookup and Reference  Returns the column number of the given cell reference.  =COLUMN([referencereference [optional]: The cell or range of cells for which you want to return the column number.])  =COLUMN([reference]) 

67  COLUMNS  Lookup and Reference  Returns the number of columns in an array or reference  =COLUMNS(arrayarray [required]: An array or array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of columns.)  =COLUMNS(array) 

68  COMBIN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items  =COMBIN(numbernumber [required]: The number of items., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: The number of items in each combination.)  =COMBIN(number, number_chosen) 

69  COMBINA  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items  =COMBINA(numbernumber [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0, and greater than or equal to Number_chosen., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0.)  =COMBINA(number, number_chosen) 

70  COMPLEX  Engineering  Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj  =COMPLEX(real_numreal_num [required]: The real coefficient of the complex number., i_numi_num [required]: The imaginary coefficient of the complex number., [suffixsuffix [optional]: The suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number.])  =COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix]) 

71  CONCAT  Text  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings  =CONCAT(text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional text items to be joined.], ..)  =CONCAT(text1, [text2], ..) 

72  CONCATENATE  Text  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings (deprecated; use CONCAT instead)  =CONCATENATE(text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional text items to be joined.], ..)  =CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ..) 

73  CONFIDENCE  Compatibility  Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution  =CONFIDENCE(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)  =CONFIDENCE(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

74  CONFIDENCE.NORM  Statistical  Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution  =CONFIDENCE.NORM(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)  =CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

75  CONFIDENCE.T  Statistical  Returns confidence interval for a population mean, using t distribution  =CONFIDENCE.T(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)  =CONFIDENCE.T(alpha, standard_dev, size) 

76  CONVERT  Engineering  Converts a number from one measurement system to another  =CONVERT(numbernumber [required]: Input value., from_unitfrom_unit [required]: Input unit., to_unitto_unit [required]: Output unit.)  =CONVERT(number, from_unit, to_unit) 

77  CORREL  Statistical  Returns the correlation coefficient of two cell ranges  =CORREL(array1array1 [required]: A range of cell values., array2array2 [required]: A second range of cell values.)  =CORREL(array1, array2) 

78  COS  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the cosine of the given angle  =COS(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cosine.)  =COS(number) 

79  COSH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number  =COSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.)  =COSH(number) 

80  COT  Math and Trigonometry  Return the cotangent of an angle specified in radians  =COT(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cotangent.)  =COT(number) 

81  COTH  Math and Trigonometry  Return the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle  =COTH(numbernumber [required]: Number from which to calculate hyperbolic cotangent.)  =COTH(number) 

82  COUNT  Statistical  Count the number of cells that contain numbers  =COUNT(value1value1 [required]: The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional items to count.], ...)  =COUNT(value1, [value2], ...) 

83  COUNTA  Statistical  Count the number of cells that are not empty in a range  =COUNTA(value1value1 [required]: The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional items to count.], ...)  =COUNTA(value1, [value2], ...) 

84  COUNTBLANK  Statistical  Counts the number of empty cells in a range of cells  =COUNTBLANK(rangerange [required]: The range from which you want to count the blank cells.)  =COUNTBLANK(range) 

85  COUNTIF  Statistical  Count the number of cells that meet a citeria  =COUNTIF(rangerange [required]: The range from which you want to count the blank cells., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text.)  =COUNTIF(range, criteria) 

86  COUNTIFS  Statistical  Applies criteria to cells across multiple ranges and counts the number of times all criteria are met  =COUNTIFS(criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: The first range in which to evaluate the associated criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional ranges and their associated criteria], ...)  =COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

87  COUPDAYBS  Financial  Returns the number of days from the beginning of a coupon period until its settlement date  =COUPDAYBS(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPDAYBS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

88  COUPDAYS  Financial  Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date  =COUPDAYS(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPDAYS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

89  COUPDAYSNC  Financial  Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date  =COUPDAYSNC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPDAYSNC(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

90  COUPNCD  Financial  Returns a number that represents the next coupon date after the settlement date  =COUPNCD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPNCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

91  COUPNUM  Financial  Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon  =COUPNUM(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPNUM(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

92  COUPPCD  Financial  Returns a number that represents the previous coupon date before the settlement date  =COUPPCD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =COUPPCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis]) 

93  COVAR  Compatibility  Returns covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets  =COVAR(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)  =COVAR(array1, array2) 

94  COVARIANCE.P  Statistical  Returns population covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets  =COVARIANCE.P(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)  =COVARIANCE.P(array1, array2) 

95  COVARIANCE.S  Statistical  Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets  =COVARIANCE.S(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)  =COVARIANCE.S(array1, array2) 

96  CRITBINOM  Compatibility  Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value  =CRITBINOM(trialstrials [required]: The number of Bernoulli trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success on each trial., alphaalpha [required]: The criterion value.)  =CRITBINOM(trials, probability_s, alpha) 

97  CSC  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the cosecant of an angle specified in radians  =CSC(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate cosecant.)  =CSC(number) 

98  CSCH  Math and Trigonometry  Return the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle specified in radians  =CSCH(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate hyperbolic cosecant.)  =CSCH(number) 

99  CUBEKPIMEMBER  Cube  Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell  =CUBEKPIMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., kpi_namekpi_name [required]: A text string of the name of the KPI in the cube., kpi_propertykpi_property [required]: The KPI component returned and can be one of the following: , [captioncaption [optional]: An alternative text string that is displayed in the cell instead of kpi_name and kpi_property.])  =CUBEKPIMEMBER(connection, kpi_name, kpi_property, [caption]) 

100  CUBEMEMBER  Cube  Returns a member or tuple from the cube  =CUBEMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., member_expressionmember_expression [required]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) that evaluates to a unique member in the cube., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.])  =CUBEMEMBER(connection, member_expression, [caption]) 

101  CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY  Cube  in Excel, returns the value of a member property from a cube  =CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., member_expressionmember_expression [required]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube., propertyproperty [required]: A text string of the name of the property returned or a reference to a cell that contains the name of the property.)  =CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connection, member_expression, property) 

102  CUBERANKEDMEMBER  Cube  Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set  =CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., set_expressionset_expression [required]: A text string of a set expression, such as "{[Item1]., rankrank [required]: An integer value specifying the top value to return., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.])  =CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connection, set_expression, rank, [caption]) 

103  CUBESET  Cube  Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Excel  =CUBESET(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., set_expressionset_expression [required]: A text string of a set expression that results in a set of members or tuples., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string that is displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.], [sort_ordersort_order [optional]: The type of sort, if any, to perform and can be one of the following: ], [sort_bysort_by [optional]: A text string of the value by which to sort.])  =CUBESET(connection, set_expression, [caption], [sort_order], [sort_by]) 

104  CUBESETCOUNT  Cube  Returns the number of items in a set  =CUBESETCOUNT(setset [required]: A text string of a Microsoft Excel expression that evaluates to a set defined by the CUBESET function.)  =CUBESETCOUNT(set) 

105  CUBEVALUE  Cube  Returns an aggregated value from the cube  =CUBEVALUE(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., [member_expressionmember_expression [optional]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube.1], ...)  =CUBEVALUE(connection, [member_expression1], ...) 

106  CUMIPMT  Financial  Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan between start_period and end_period  =CUMIPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods., pvpv [required]: The present value., start_periodstart_period [required]: The first period in the calculation., end_periodend_period [required]: The last period in the calculation., typetype [required]: The timing of the payment.)  =CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) 

107  CUMPRINC  Financial  Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between start_period and end_period  =CUMPRINC(raterate [required]: The interest rate., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods., pvpv [required]: The present value., start_periodstart_period [required]: The first period in the calculation., end_periodend_period [required]: The last period in the calculation., typetype [required]: The timing of the payment.)  =CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type) 

108  DATE  Date and Time  Combines three separate values to form a date  =DATE (yearyear [required]: The value of the year argument can include one to four digits. , monthmonth [required]: A positive or negative integer representing the month of the year from 1 to 12., dayday [required]: A positive or negative integer representing the day of the month from 1 to 31.)  =DATE (year, month, day) 

109  DATEDIF  Date and Time  Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates  =DATEDIF(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the first, or starting date of a given period., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the last, or ending, date of the period., unitunit [required]: The type of information that you want returned, where:)  =DATEDIF(start_date, end_date, unit) 

110  DATEVALUE  Date and Time  Converts a date that is stored as text to a serial number that Excel recognizes as a date.  =DATEVALUE(date_textdate_text [required]: Text that represents a date in an Excel date format, or a reference to a cell that contains text that represents a date in an Excel date format.)  =DATEVALUE(date_text) 

111  DAVERAGE  Database  Averages the values in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify  =DAVERAGE(databasedatabase [required]: A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields., fieldfield [required]: Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on., criteriacriteria [required]: You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column.)  =DAVERAGE(database, field, criteria) 

112  DAY  Date and Time  Returns the day of a date, represented by a serial number  =DAY(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the day you are trying to find.)  =DAY(serial_number) 

113  DAYS  Date and Time  Returns the number of days between two dates  =DAYS(end_dateend_date [required]: From which date you want to know the number of days., start_datestart_date [required]: Until which date you want to know the number of days.)  =DAYS(end_date, start_date) 

114  DAYS360  Date and Time  Returns the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year  =DAYS360(start_datestart_date [required]: From which date you want to know the number of days.,end_dateend_date [required]: Until which date you want to know the number of days.,[methodmethod [optional]: A logical value that specifies whether to use the U.S. or European method in the calculation.])  =DAYS360(start_date,end_date,[method]) 

115  DB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance method  =DB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., periodperiod [required]: The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [monthmonth [optional]: The number of months in the first year.])  =DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month]) 

116  DBCS  Text  Converts halfwidth (singlebyte) letters within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters  =DBCS(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)  =DBCS(text) 

117  DCOUNT  Database  Counts the cells that contain numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DCOUNT(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DCOUNT(database, field, criteria) 

118  DCOUNTA  Database  Counts the nonblank cells in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DCOUNTA(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DCOUNTA(database, field, criteria) 

119  DDB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method you specify  =DDB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., periodperiod [required]: The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [factorfactor [optional]: The rate at which the balance declines.])  =DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor]) 

120  DEC2BIN  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to binary  =DEC2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =DEC2BIN(number, [places]) 

121  DEC2HEX  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal  =DEC2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =DEC2HEX(number, [places]) 

122  DEC2OCT  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to octal  =DEC2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =DEC2OCT(number, [places]) 

123  DECIMAL  Math and Trigonometry  Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number  =DECIMAL(texttext [required]: Text representation of a number., radixradix [required]: Radix must be an integer.)  =DECIMAL(text, radix) 

124  DEGREES  Math and Trigonometry  Converts radians into degrees  =DEGREES(angleangle [required]: The angle in radians that you want to convert.)  =DEGREES(angle) 

125  DELTA  Engineering  Tests whether two values are equal  =DELTA(number1number1 [required]: The first number., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers])  =DELTA(number1, [number2]) 

126  DEVSQ  Statistical  Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean  =DEVSQ(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate the sum of squared deviations, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers], ...)  =DEVSQ(number1, [number2], ...) 

127  DGET  Database  Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify  =DGET(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DGET(database, field, criteria) 

128  DISC  Financial  Returns the discount rate for a security  =DISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., prpr [required]: The security's price per $100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =DISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis]) 

129  DMAX  Database  Returns the largest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions you that specify  =DMAX(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DMAX(database, field, criteria) 

130  DMIN  Database  Returns the smallest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions that you specify  =DMIN(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DMIN(database, field, criteria) 

131  DOLLAR  Text  Converts a number to text using currency format, with the decimals rounded to the number of places specified  =DOLLAR(numbernumber [required]: A number, a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number., [decimalsdecimals [optional]: The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.])  =DOLLAR(number, [decimals]) 

132  DOLLARDE  Financial  Converts a dollar price expressed as an integer part and a fraction part, such as 1  =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollarfractional_dollar [required]: A number expressed as an integer part and a fraction part, separated by a decimal symbol., fractionfraction [required]: The integer to use in the denominator of the fraction.)  =DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction) 

133  DOLLARFR  Financial  Converts decimal numbers to fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices  =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollardecimal_dollar [required]: A decimal number., fractionfraction [required]: The integer to use in the denominator of a fraction.)  =DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction) 

134  DPRODUCT  Database  Multiplies the values in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DPRODUCT(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DPRODUCT(database, field, criteria) 

135  DSTDEV  Database  Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DSTDEV(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DSTDEV(database, field, criteria) 

136  DSTDEVP  Database  Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DSTDEVP(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DSTDEVP(database, field, criteria) 

137  DSUM  Database  Adds the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DSUM(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: Is the range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DSUM(database, field, criteria) 

138  DURATION  Financial  Returns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value of $100.  =DURATION(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., couponcoupon [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =DURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis]) 

139  DVAR  Database  Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DVAR(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DVAR(database, field, criteria) 

140  DVARP  Database  Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify  =DVARP(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)  =DVARP(database, field, criteria) 

141  EDATE  Date and Time  Returns the serial number that represents the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a specified date (the start_date)  =EDATE(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., monthsmonths [required]: The number of months before or after start_date.)  =EDATE(start_date, months) 

142  EFFECT  Financial  Returns the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year  =EFFECT(nominal_ratenominal_rate [required]: The nominal interest rate., nperynpery [required]: The number of compounding periods per year.)  =EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery) 

143  ENCODEURL  Web  Returns an URLencoded string, replacing certain nonalphanumeric characters with the percentage symbol (%) and a hexadecimal number  =ENCODEURL(texttext [required]: A string to be URL encoded)  =ENCODEURL(text) 

144  EOMONTH  Date and Time  Returns the serial number for the last day of the month that is the indicated number of months before or after start_date  =EOMONTH(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the starting date., monthsmonths [required]: The number of months before or after start_date.)  =EOMONTH(start_date, months) 

145  ERF  Engineering  Returns the error function integrated between lower_limit and upper_limit  =ERF(lower_limitlower_limit [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERF., [upper_limitupper_limit [optional]: The upper bound for integrating ERF.])  =ERF(lower_limit, [upper_limit]) 

146  ERF.PRECISE  Engineering  Returns the error function  =ERF.PRECISE(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERF.)  =ERF.PRECISE(x) 

147  ERFC  Engineering  Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity  =ERFC(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERFC.)  =ERFC(x) 

148  ERFC.PRECISE  Engineering  Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity  =ERFC.PRECISE(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERFC.)  =ERFC.PRECISE(x) 

149  ERROR.TYPE  IS Functions and Information  Returns a number corresponding to one of the error values in Microsoft Excel or returns the #N/A error if no error exists  =ERROR.TYPE(error_valerror_val [required]: The error value whose identifying number you want to find.)  =ERROR.TYPE(error_val) 

150  EUROCONVERT  Addin and Automation  Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation)  =EUROCONVERT(numbernumber [required]: The currency value you want to convert, or a reference to a cell containing the value., sourcesource [required]: A threeletter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the ISO code for the source currency., targettarget [required]: A threeletter string, or cell reference, corresponding to the ISO code of the currency to which you want to convert the number., full_precisionfull_precision [required]: A logical value (TRUE or FALSE), or an expression that evaluates to a value of TRUE or FALSE, that specifies how to display the result., triangulation_precisiontriangulation_precision [required]: An integer equal to or greater than 3 that specifies the number of significant digits to be used for the intermediate euro value when converting between two euro member currencies.)  =EUROCONVERT(number, source, target, full_precision, triangulation_precision) 

151  EVEN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer  =EVEN(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)  =EVEN(number) 

152  EXACT  Text  Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are exactly the same, FALSE otherwise  =EXACT(text1text1 [required]: The first text string., text2text2 [required]: The second text string.)  =EXACT(text1, text2) 

153  EXP  Math and Trigonometry  Returns e raised to the power of number  =EXP(numbernumber [required]: The exponent applied to the base e.)  =EXP(number) 

154  EXPON.DIST  Statistical  Returns the exponential distribution  =EXPON.DIST(xx [required]: The value of the function., lambdalambda [required]: The parameter value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.)  =EXPON.DIST(x, lambda, cumulative) 

155  EXPONDIST  Compatibility  Returns the exponential distribution  =EXPONDIST(xx [required]: The value of the function., lambdalambda [required]: The parameter value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.)  =EXPONDIST(x, lambda, cumulative) 

156  F.DIST  Statistical  Returns the F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets  =F.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =F.DIST(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2, cumulative) 

157  F.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the (righttailed) F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets  =F.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)  =F.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) 

158  F.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution  =F.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)  =F.INV(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) 

159  F.INV.RT  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the (righttailed) F probability distribution  =F.INV.RT(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)  =F.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) 

160  F.TEST  Statistical  Returns the result of an Ftest, the twotailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different  =F.TEST(array1array1 [required]: The first array or range of data., array2array2 [required]: The second array or range of data.)  =F.TEST(array1, array2) 

161  FACT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the factorial of a number  =FACT(numbernumber [required]: The nonnegative number for which you want the factorial.)  =FACT(number) 

162  FACTDOUBLE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the double factorial of a number  =FACTDOUBLE(numbernumber [required]: The value for which to return the double factorial.)  =FACTDOUBLE(number) 

163  FALSE  Logical  Returns the logical value FALSE  =FALSE()  =FALSE()  
164  FDIST  Compatibility  Returns the F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets  =FDIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)  =FDIST(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) 

165  FILTER  Lookup and Reference  Filters a range of data based on criteria you define  =FILTER (arrayarray [required]: Range to filter, includeinclude [required]: Filter criteria, [if_emptyif_empty [optional]: Return value if no results])  =FILTER (array, include, [if_empty]) 

166  FILTERXML  Web  Returns specific data from XML content by using the specified xpath  =FILTERXML(xmlxml [required]: A string in valid XML format, xpathxpath [required]: A string in standard XPath format)  =FILTERXML(xml, xpath) 

167  FIND  Text  Locates one text string within a second text string and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =FIND(find_textfind_text [required]: Text to find (needle)., within_textwithin_text [required]: Text to find in (haystack)., [start_numstart_num [optional]: Character at which to start search.])  =FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num]) 

168  FINDB  Text  Locates one text string within a second text string and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =FIND(find_textfind_text [required]: Text to find (needle)., within_textwithin_text [required]: Text to find in (haystack)., [start_numstart_num [optional]: Character at which to start search.])  =FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num]) 

169  FINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the (righttailed) F probability distribution  =FINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)  =FINV(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2) 

170  FISHER  Statistical  Returns the Fisher transformation at x  =FISHER(xx [required]: A numeric value for which you want the transformation.)  =FISHER(x) 

171  FISHERINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation  =FISHERINV(yy [required]: The value for which you want to perform the inverse of the transformation.)  =FISHERINV(y) 

172  FIXED  Text  Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text  =FIXED(numbernumber [required]: The number you want to round and convert to text., [decimalsdecimals [optional]: The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.], [no_commasno_commas [optional]: A logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text.])  =FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas]) 

173  FLOOR  Compatibility  Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance  =FLOOR(numbernumber [required]: The numeric value you want to round., significancesignificance [required]: The multiple to which you want to round.)  =FLOOR(number, significance) 

174  FLOOR.MATH  Math and Trigonometry  Round a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance  =FLOOR.MATH(numbernumber [required]: The number to be rounded down., significancesignificance [required]: The multiple to which you want to round., modemode [required]: The direction (toward or away from 0) to round negative numbers.)  =FLOOR.MATH(number, significance, mode) 

175  FLOOR.PRECISE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a number that is rounded down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance  =FLOOR.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])  =FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance]) 

176  FORECAST  Statistical  Calculate, or predict, a future value by using existing values  =FORECAST(xx [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent array or range of data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent array or range of data.)  =FORECAST(x, known_y's, known_x's) 

177  FORECAST.ETS  Statistical  Calculates or predicts a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm  =FORECAST.ETS(target_datetarget_date [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])  =FORECAST.ETS(target_date, values, timeline, [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation]) 

178  FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT  Statistical  Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date.  =FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_datetarget_date [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [confidence_levelconfidence_level [optional]: A numerical value between 0 and 1 (exclusive), indicating a confidence level for the calculated confidence interval.], [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])  =FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_date, values, timeline, [confidence_level], [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation]) 

179  FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY  Statistical  Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series  =FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY(valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])  =FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY(values, timeline, [data_completion], [aggregation]) 

180  FORECAST.ETS.STAT  Statistical  Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting  =FORECAST.ETS.STAT(valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , statistic_typestatistic_type [required]: A numeric value between 1 and 8, indicating which statistic will be returned for the calculated forecast., [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])  =FORECAST.ETS.STAT(values, timeline, statistic_type, [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation]) 

181  FORECAST.LINEAR  Statistical  Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting  =FORECAST.LINEAR(xx [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent array or range of data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent array or range of data.)  =FORECAST.LINEAR(x, known_y's, known_x's) 

182  FORMULATEXT  Lookup and Reference  Returns a formula as a string  =FORMULATEXT(referencereference [required]: A reference to a cell or range of cells.)  =FORMULATEXT(reference) 

183  FREQUENCY  Statistical  Calculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers  =FREQUENCY(data_arraydata_array [required]: An array of or reference to a set of values for which you want to count frequencies., bins_arraybins_array [required]: An array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values in data_array.)  =FREQUENCY(data_array, bins_array) 

184  FTEST  Compatibility  Returns the result of an Ftest, the twotailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different  =FTEST(array1array1 [required]: The first array or range of data., array2array2 [required]: The second array or range of data.)  =FTEST(array1, array2) 

185  FV  Financial  Calculates the future value of an investment based on a constant interest rate.  =FV(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity., [pvpv [optional]: The present value, or the lumpsum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =FV(rate, nper, pmt, [pv], [type]) 

186  FVSCHEDULE  Financial  Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates  =FVSCHEDULE(principalprincipal [required]: The present value., scheduleschedule [required]: An array of interest rates to apply.)  =FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule) 

187  GAMMA  Statistical  Return the gamma function value  =GAMMA(numbernumber [required]: Returns a number.)  =GAMMA(number) 

188  GAMMA.DIST  Statistical  Returns the gamma distribution  =GAMMA.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =GAMMA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative) 

189  GAMMA.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution  =GAMMA.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the gamma distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution.)  =GAMMA.INV(probability, alpha, beta) 

190  GAMMADIST  Compatibility  Returns the gamma distribution  =GAMMADIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =GAMMADIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative) 

191  GAMMAINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution  =GAMMAINV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the gamma distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution.)  =GAMMAINV(probability, alpha, beta) 

192  GAMMALN  Statistical  Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function  =GAMMALN(xx [required]: The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.)  =GAMMALN(x) 

193  GAMMALN.PRECISE  Statistical  Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function  =GAMMALN.PRECISE(xx [required]: The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.)  =GAMMALN.PRECISE(x) 

194  GAUSS  Statistical  Calculates the probability that a member of a standard normal population will fall between the mean and z standard deviations from the mean  =GAUSS(zz [required]: Returns a number.)  =GAUSS(z) 

195  GCD  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers  =GCD(number1number1 [required]: The first number from which to determine the greatest common divisor of two or more integer, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)  =GCD(number1, [number2], ...) 

196  GEOMEAN  Statistical  Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data  =GEOMEAN(number1number1 [required]: The first number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)  =GEOMEAN(number1, [number2], ...) 

197  GESTEP  Engineering  Returns 1 if number ? step; returns 0 (zero) otherwise  =GESTEP(numbernumber [required]: The value to test against step., [stepstep [optional]: The threshold value.])  =GESTEP(number, [step]) 

198  GETPIVOTDATA  Lookup and Reference  Returns visible data from a PivotTable  =GETPIVOTDATA(data_fielddata_field [required]: The name of the PivotTable field that contains the data that you want to retrieve., pivot_tablepivot_table [required]: A reference to any cell, range of cells, or named range of cells in a PivotTable., [field1, item1, field2, item2field1, item1, field2, item2 [optional]: Additional optional fields, items and references], ...)  =GETPIVOTDATA(data_field, pivot_table, [field1, item1, field2, item2], ...) 

199  GROWTH  Statistical  Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data  =GROWTH(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of yvalues you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of xvalues that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.], [new_x'snew_x's [optional]: Are new xvalues for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding yvalues.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.])  =GROWTH(known_y's, [known_x's], [new_x's], [const]) 

200  HARMEAN  Statistical  Returns the harmonic mean of a data set  =HARMEAN(number1number1 [required]: Number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean. , [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional number arguments. ], ...)  =HARMEAN(number1, [number2], ...) 

201  HEX2BIN  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to binary  =HEX2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =HEX2BIN(number, [places]) 

202  HEX2DEC  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal  =HEX2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert.)  =HEX2DEC(number) 

203  HEX2OCT  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to octal  =HEX2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =HEX2OCT(number, [places]) 

204  HLOOKUP  Lookup and Reference  Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array  =HLOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to be found in the first row of the table., table_arraytable_array [required]: A table of information in which data is looked up., row_index_numrow_index_num [required]: The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned., [range_lookuprange_lookup [optional]: A logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match.])  =HLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, [range_lookup]) 

205  HOUR  Date and Time  Returns the hour of a time value  =HOUR(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the hour you want to find.)  =HOUR(serial_number) 

206  HYPERLINK  Lookup and Reference  Creates a shortcut that jumps to another location in the current workbook or to an address  =HYPERLINK(link_locationlink_location [required]: The path and file name to the document to be opened., [friendly_namefriendly_name [optional]: The jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell.])  =HYPERLINK(link_location, [friendly_name]) 

207  HYPGEOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the hypergeometric distribution/ probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size.  =HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_ssample_s [required]: The number of successes in the sample., number_samplenumber_sample [required]: The size of the sample., population_spopulation_s [required]: The number of successes in the population., number_popnumber_pop [required]: The population size., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_pop, cumulative) 

208  HYPGEOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the hypergeometric distribution/ probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size.  =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_ssample_s [required]: The number of successes in the sample., number_samplenumber_sample [required]: The size of the sample., population_spopulation_s [required]: The number of successes in the population., number_popnumber_pop [required]: The population size.)  =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_pop) 

209  IF  Logical  Make logical comparisons between a value and what you expect  =IF(logical_testlogical_test [required]: Logical test/ condition.,[value_if_truevalue_if_true [optional]: Value if condition is met.], [value_if_falsevalue_if_false [optional]: Value if condition is not met.]  =IF(logical_test,[value_if_true], [value_if_false] 

210  IFERROR  Logical  Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, it returns the result of the formula  =IFERROR(valuevalue [required]: The argument that is checked for an error., value_if_errorvalue_if_error [required]: The value to return if the formula evaluates to an error.)  =IFERROR(value, value_if_error) 

211  IFNA  Logical  Returns the value specified if a formula returns the #N/A error value; otherwise it returns the result of the formula  =IFNA(valuevalue [required]: The argument that is checked for the #N/A error value., value_if_navalue_if_na [required]: The value to return if the formula evaluates to the #N/A error value.)  =IFNA(value, value_if_na) 

212  IFS  Logical  Checks whether one or more conditions are met, and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition  ==ifs(logical_test1logical_test1 [required]: Logical test/ condition., value_if_true1value_if_true1 [required]: Value if condition is met., [logical_test2, value_if_true2logical_test2, value_if_true2 [optional]: Additioanl logical tests and values if condition is met])  ==ifs(logical_test1, value_if_true1, [logical_test2, value_if_true2]) 

213  IMABS  Engineering  Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMABS(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the absolute value.)  =IMABS(inumber) 

214  IMAGINARY  Engineering  Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMAGINARY(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the imaginary coefficient.)  =IMAGINARY(inumber) 

215  IMARGUMENT  Engineering  Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMARGUMENT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the argument.)  =IMARGUMENT(inumber) 

216  IMCONJUGATE  Engineering  Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMCONJUGATE(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the conjugate.)  =IMCONJUGATE(inumber) 

217  IMCOS  Engineering  Returns the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMCOS(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cosine.)  =IMCOS(inumber) 

218  IMCOSH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMCOSH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosine.)  =IMCOSH(inumber) 

219  IMCOT  Engineering  Returns the cotangent of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMCOT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cotangent.)  =IMCOT(inumber) 

220  IMCSC  Engineering  Returns the cosecant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMCSC(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cosecant.)  =IMCSC(inumber) 

221  IMCSCH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMCSCH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosecant.)  =IMCSCH(inumber) 

222  IMDIV  Engineering  Returns the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMDIV(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex numerator or dividend., inumber2inumber2 [required]: The complex denominator or divisor.)  =IMDIV(inumber1, inumber2) 

223  IMEXP  Engineering  Returns the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMEXP(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the exponential.)  =IMEXP(inumber) 

224  IMLN  Engineering  Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMLN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the natural logarithm.)  =IMLN(inumber) 

225  IMLOG10  Engineering  Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMLOG10(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the common logarithm.)  =IMLOG10(inumber) 

226  IMLOG2  Engineering  Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMLOG2(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the base2 logarithm.)  =IMLOG2(inumber) 

227  IMPOWER  Engineering  Returns a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format raised to a power  =IMPOWER(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number you want to raise to a power., numbernumber [required]: The power to which you want to raise the complex number.)  =IMPOWER(inumber, number) 

228  IMPRODUCT  Engineering  Returns the product of 1 to 255 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMPRODUCT(inumber1inumber1 [optional]: Additional complex numbers, [inumber2inumber2 [required]: A complex number to use improduct function on], ...)  =IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2], ...) 

229  IMREAL  Engineering  Returns the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMREAL(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the real coefficient.)  =IMREAL(inumber) 

230  IMSEC  Engineering  Returns the secant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMSEC(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the secant.)  =IMSEC(inumber) 

231  IMSECH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMSECH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic secant.)  =IMSECH(inumber) 

232  IMSIN  Engineering  Returns the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMSIN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the sine.)  =IMSIN(inumber) 

233  IMSINH  Engineering  Function returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMSINH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic sine.)  =IMSINH(inumber) 

234  IMSQRT  Engineering  Returns the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMSQRT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the square root.)  =IMSQRT(inumber) 

235  IMSUB  Engineering  Returns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMSUB(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex number from which to subtract inumber2., inumber2inumber2 [required]: The complex number to subtract from inumber1.)  =IMSUB(inumber1, inumber2) 

236  IMSUM  Engineering  Returns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format  =IMSUM(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex number you want to add., [inumber2inumber2 [optional]: Additional optional complex numbers.], ...)  =IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2], ...) 

237  IMTAN  Engineering  Returns the tangent of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format  =IMTAN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the tangent.)  =IMTAN(inumber) 

238  INDEX  Lookup and Reference  Returns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range  =INDEX(arrayarray [required]: A range of cells or an array constant., row_numrow_num [required]: Selects the row in array from which to return a value. Optional if column_num is provided. , [column_numcolumn_num [optional]: Selects the column in array from which to return a value. ])  =INDEX(array, row_num, [column_num]) 

239  INDIRECT  Lookup and Reference  Returns the reference specified by a text string  =INDIRECT(ref_textref_text [required]: A reference to a cell that contains an A1style reference, an R1C1style reference, a name defined as a reference, or a reference to a cell as a text string., [a1a1 [optional]: A logical value that specifies what type of reference is contained in the cell ref_text.])  =INDIRECT(ref_text, [a1]) 

240  INFO  IS Functions and Information  Returns information about the current operating environment  =INFO(type_texttype_text [required]: Text that specifies what type of information you want returned.)  =INFO(type_text) 

241  INT  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number down to the nearest integer  =INT(numbernumber [required]: The real number you want to round down to an integer.)  =INT(number) 

242  INTERCEPT  Statistical  Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the yaxis by using existing xvalues and yvalues  =INTERCEPT(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent set of observations or data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent set of observations or data.)  =INTERCEPT(known_y's, known_x's) 

243  INTRATE  Financial  Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security  =INTRATE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., investmentinvestment [required]: The amount invested in the security., redemptionredemption [required]: The amount to be received at maturity., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =INTRATE(settlement, maturity, investment, redemption, [basis]) 

244  IPMT  Financial  Returns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate  =IPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., perper [required]: The period for which you want to find the interest and must be in the range 1 to nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the lumpsum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type]) 

245  IRR  Financial  Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by the numbers in values  =IRR(valuesvalues [required]: An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to calculate the internal rate of return., [guessguess [optional]: A number that you guess is close to the result of IRR.])  =IRR(values, [guess]) 

246  ISBLANK  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value refers to empty cell  =ISBLANK(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISBLANK(value) 

247  ISERR  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is any error value ((#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!)  =ISERR(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISERR(value) 

248  ISERROR  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is any error value ((#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!)  =ISERROR(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISERROR(value) 

249  ISEVEN  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is an even number  =ISEVEN(numbernumber [required]: The value to test.)  =ISEVEN(number) 

250  ISFORMULA  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a formula  =ISFORMULA(referencereference [required]: Reference is a reference to the cell you want to test.)  =ISFORMULA(reference) 

251  ISLOGICAL  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a logical value  =ISLOGICAL(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested. )  =ISLOGICAL(value) 

252  ISNA  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is #N/A (value not available)  =ISNA(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested. )  =ISNA(value) 

253  ISNONTEXT  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a nontext vlue  =ISNONTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISNONTEXT(value) 

254  ISNUMBER  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a number  =ISNUMBER(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISNUMBER(value) 

255  ISO.CEILING  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance  =ISO.CEILING(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The optional multiple to which number is to be rounded.])  =ISO.CEILING(number, [significance]) 

256  ISODD  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is an odd number  =ISODD(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISODD(value) 

257  ISOWEEKNUM  Date and Time  Returns number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date  =ISOWEEKNUM(datedate [required]: Date is the datetime code used by Excel for date and time calculation.)  =ISOWEEKNUM(date) 

258  ISPMT  Financial  Calculates the interest paid (or received) for the specified period of a loan (or investment) with even principal payments  =ISPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate for the investment., perper [required]: The period for which you want to find the interest, and must be between 1 and Nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods for the investment., pvpv [required]: The present value of the investment. For a loan, Pv is the loan amount.)  =ISPMT(rate, per, nper, pv) 

259  ISREF  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a reference  =ISREF(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISREF(value) 

260  ISTEXT  IS Functions and Information  Checks if value is a text  =ISTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)  =ISTEXT(value) 

261  JIS  Text  Converts halfwidth (singlebyte) letters within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters  =JIS(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)  =JIS(text) 

262  KURT  Statistical  Returns the kurtosis of a data set  =KURT(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate kurtosis., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =KURT(number1, [number2], ...) 

263  LARGE  Statistical  Returns the kth largest value in a data set  =LARGE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data for which you want to determine the kth largest value., kk [required]: The position (from the largest) in the array or cell range of data to return.)  =LARGE(array, k) 

264  LCM  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the least common multiple of integers  =LCM(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want the least common multiple. , [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =LCM(number1, [number2], ...) 

265  LEFT  Text  Returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =LEFT(texttext [required]: The text string that contains the characters you want to extract., [num_charsnum_chars [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want LEFT to extract.])  =LEFT(text, [num_chars]) 

266  LEFTB  Text  Returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =LEFTB(texttext [required]: The text string that contains the characters you want to extract., [num_bytesnum_bytes [optional]: Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want LEFTB to extract.])  =LEFTB(text, [num_bytes]) 

267  LEN  Text  Returns the number of characters in a text string. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =LEN(texttext [required]: The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.)  =LEN(text) 

268  LENB  Text  Returns the number of characters in a text string. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =LENB(texttext [required]: The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.)  =LENB(text) 

269  LET  Math and Trigonometry  Assigns names to calculation results to allows storing intermediate calculations, values, or defining names inside a formula  =LET(namename [required]: Name to assign, name_valuename_value [required]: Value calculation to assign to value, calculationcalculation [required]: Calculation for assigned names/ values)  =LET(name, name_value, calculation) 

270  LINEST  Statistical  Calculate the statistics for other types of models that are linear in the unknown parameters, including polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and power series  =LINEST(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The et of yvalues that you already know in the relationship y = mx + b., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: A set of xvalues that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0.], [statsstats [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.])  =LINEST(known_y's, [known_x's], [const], [stats]) 

271  LN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the natural logarithm of a number  =LN(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.)  =LN(number) 

272  LOG  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify  =LOG(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the logarithm., [basebase [optional]: The base of the logarithm.])  =LOG(number, [base]) 

273  LOG10  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the base10 logarithm of a number  =LOG10(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the base10 logarithm.)  =LOG10(number) 

274  LOGEST  Statistical  Calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve.  =LOGEST(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of yvalues you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of xvalues that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.], [statsstats [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.])  =LOGEST(known_y's, [known_x's], [const], [stats]) 

275  LOGINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev.  =LOGINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the lognormal distribution., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)  =LOGINV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

276  LOGNORM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters Mean and Standard_dev  =LOGNORM.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x)., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =LOGNORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative) 

277  LOGNORM.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters Mean and Standard_dev  =LOGNORM.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the lognormal distribution., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)  =LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

278  LOGNORMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev  =LOGNORMDIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)  =LOGNORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev) 

279  LOOKUP  Lookup and Reference  Looks in a onerow or onecolumn range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a value from the same position in a second onerow or onecolumn range  =LOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: A value that LOOKUP searches for in the first vector., lookup_vectorlookup_vector [required]: A range that contains only one row or one column. , [result_vectorresult_vector [optional]: A range that contains only one row or column. ])  =LOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_vector, [result_vector]) 

280  LOWER  Text  Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase  =LOWER(texttext [required]: The text you want to convert to lowercase.)  =LOWER(text) 

281  MATCH  Lookup and Reference  Searches for a specified item in a range of cells, and then returns the relative position of that item in the range  =MATCH(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value that you want to match in lookup_array., lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: The range of cells being searched., [match_typematch_type [optional]: The number 1, 0, or 1.])  =MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_type]) 

282  MAX  Statistical  Returns the largest value in a set of values  =MAX(number1number1 [required]: First numbers for which you want to find the maximum value., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers.], ...)  =MAX(number1, [number2], ...) 

283  MAXA  Statistical  Returns the largest value in a list of arguments  =MAXA(value1value1 [optional]: Additional number arguments.value1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to find the largest value., [value2], ...)  =MAXA(value1, [value2], ...) 

284  MAXIFS  Statistical  Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria  =MAXIFS(max_rangemax_range [required]: The actual range of cells in which the maximum will be determined., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as maximum., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional ranges/criterias], ...)  =MAXIFS(max_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

285  MDETERM  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the matrix determinant of an array  =MDETERM(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)  =MDETERM(array) 

286  MDURATION  Financial  Returns the modified Macauley duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100  =MDURATION(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., couponcoupon [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =MDURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis]) 

287  MEDIAN  Statistical  Returns the median of the given numbers  =MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...)  =MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...)  
288  MID  Text  Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =MID(text, start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the first character you want to extract in text., num_charsnum_chars [required]: Specifies the number of characters you want MID to return from text.)  =MID(text, start_num, num_chars) 

289  MIDB  Text  Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =MIDB(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the first character you want to extract in text., num_bytesnum_bytes [required]: Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want MIDB to return from text.)  =MIDB(text, start_num, num_bytes) 

290  MIN  Statistical  Returns the smallest number in a set of values  =MIN(number1number1 [required]: First numbers for which you want to find the smallest value., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers.], ...)  =MIN(number1, [number2], ...) 

291  MINA  Statistical  Returns the smallest value in the list of arguments  =MINA(value1value1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to find the smallest value., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional number arguments.], ...)  =MINA(value1, [value2], ...) 

292  MINIFS  Statistical  Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria  =MINIFS(min_rangemin_range [required]: The actual range of cells in which the smallest number will be determined., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as minimum., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional ranges/criterias], ...)  =MINIFS(min_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

293  MINUTE  Date and Time  Returns the minutes of a time value  =MINUTE(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the minute you want to find.)  =MINUTE(serial_number) 

294  MINVERSE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse matrix for a matrix stored in an array  =MINVERSE(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)  =MINVERSE(array) 

295  MIRR  Financial  Returns the modified internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows  =MIRR(valuesvalues [required]: An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers., finance_ratefinance_rate [required]: The interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows., reinvest_ratereinvest_rate [required]: The interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them.)  =MIRR(values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate) 

296  MMULT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the matrix product of two arrays  =MMULT(array1array1 [required]: The first arrays you want to multiply., array2array2 [required]: The second arrays you want to multiply.)  =MMULT(array1, array2) 

297  MOD  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor  =MOD(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want to find the remainder., divisordivisor [required]: The number by which you want to divide number.)  =MOD(number, divisor) 

298  MODE  Compatibility  Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data  =MODE(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)  =MODE(number1, [number2], ...) 

299  MODE.MULT  Statistical  Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data  =MODE.MULT((number1number1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)  =MODE.MULT((number1, [number2], ...) 

300  MODE.SNGL  Statistical  Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data  =MODE.SNGL(number1number1 [required]: The first argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)  =MODE.SNGL(number1, [number2], ...) 

301  MONTH  Date and Time  Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number  =MONTH(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the month you are trying to find.)  =MONTH(serial_number) 

302  MROUND  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple  =MROUND(numbernumber [required]: The value to round., multiplemultiple [required]: The multiple to which you want to round number.)  =MROUND(number, multiple) 

303  MULTINOMIAL  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials  =MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)  =MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)  
304  MUNIT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the unit matrix for the specified dimension  =MUNIT(dimensiondimension [required]: Dimension is an integer specifying the dimension of the unit matrix that you want to return. It returns an array. The dimension has to be greater than zero.)  =MUNIT(dimension) 

305  N  IS Functions and Information  Returns a value converted to a number  =N(valuevalue [required]: The value you want converted.)  =N(value) 

306  NA  IS Functions and Information  Returns the error value #N/A  =NA()  =NA()  
307  NEGBINOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the negative binomial distribution, the probability that there will be Number_f failures before the Number_sth success, with Probability_s probability of a success  =NEGBINOM.DIST(number_fnumber_f [required]: The number of failures., number_snumber_s [required]: The threshold number of successes., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s, cumulative) 

308  NEGBINOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the negative binomial distribution  =NEGBINOMDIST(number_fnumber_f [required]: The number of failures., number_snumber_s [required]: The threshold number of successes., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success.)  =NEGBINOMDIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s) 

309  NETWORKDAYS  Date and Time  Returns the number of whole working days between start_date and end_date  =NETWORKDAYS(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the end date., [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.])  =NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays]) 

310  NETWORKDAYS.INTL  Date and Time  Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days  =NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])  =NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])  
311  NOMINAL  Financial  Returns the nominal annual interest rate, given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year  =NOMINAL(effect_rateeffect_rate [required]: The effective interest rate., nperynpery [required]: The number of compounding periods per year.)  =NOMINAL(effect_rate, npery) 

312  NORM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation  =NORM.DIST(xx [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =NORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative) 

313  NORM.INV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation  =NORM.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)  =NORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

314  NORM.S.DIST  Statistical  Returns the standard normal distribution (has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one)  =NORM.S.DIST(zz [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =NORM.S.DIST(z, cumulative) 

315  NORM.S.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution  =NORM.S.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.)  =NORM.S.INV(probability) 

316  NORMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation  =NORMDIST(xx [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =NORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative) 

317  NORMINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation  =NORMINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)  =NORMINV(probability, mean, standard_dev) 

318  NORMSDIST  Compatibility  Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function  =NORMSDIST(zz [required]: The value for which you want the distribution.)  =NORMSDIST(z) 

319  NORMSINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution  =NORMSINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.)  =NORMSINV(probability) 

320  NOT  Logical  Returns the opposite of a logical value  =NOT(logicallogical [required]: Logical expression to check for NOT condition)  =NOT(logical) 

321  NOW  Date and Time  Returns the serial number of the current date and time.  =NOW()  =NOW()  
322  NPER  Financial  Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate  =NPER(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the lumpsum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =NPER(rate, pmt, pv, [fv], [type]) 

323  NPV  Financial  Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values)  =NPV(raterate [required]: The rate of discount over the length of one period., value1value1 [required]: First arguments representing the payments and income., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional arguments representing the payments and income.], ...)  =NPV(rate, value1, [value2], ...) 

324  NUMBERVALUE  Text  Converts text to a number, in a localeindependent way  =NUMBERVALUE(texttext [required]: The text to convert to a number., [decimal_separatordecimal_separator [optional]: The character used to separate the integer and fractional part of the result.], [group_separatorgroup_separator [optional]: The character used to separate groupings of numbers, such as thousands from hundreds and millions from thousands. ])  =NUMBERVALUE(text, [decimal_separator], [group_separator ]) 

325  OCT2BIN  Engineering  Converts an octal number to binary  =OCT2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =OCT2BIN(number, [places]) 

326  OCT2DEC  Engineering  Converts an octal number to decimal  =OCT2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert.)  =OCT2DEC(number) 

327  OCT2HEX  Engineering  Converts an octal number to hexadecimal  =OCT2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])  =OCT2HEX(number, [places]) 

328  ODD  Math and Trigonometry  Returns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer  =ODD(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)  =ODD(number) 

329  ODDFPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period  =ODDFPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_couponfirst_coupon [required]: The security's first coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =ODDFPRICE(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

330  ODDFYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period  =ODDFYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_couponfirst_coupon [required]: The security's first coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., prpr [required]: The security's price., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =ODDFYIELD(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

331  ODDLPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period  =ODDLPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., last_interestlast_interest [required]: The security's last coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =ODDLPRICE(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

332  ODDLYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period  =ODDLYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., last_interestlast_interest [required]: The security's last coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate , prpr [required]: The security's price., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =ODDLYIELD(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

333  OFFSET  Lookup and Reference  Returns a reference to a range that is a specified number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells  =OFFSET(referencereference [required]: The reference from which you want to base the offset., rowsrows [required]: The number of rows, up or down, that you want the upperleft cell to refer to., colscols [required]: The number of columns, to the left or right, that you want the upperleft cell of the result to refer to., [heightheight [optional]: The height, in number of rows, that you want the returned reference to be.], [widthwidth [optional]: The width, in number of columns, that you want the returned reference to be.])  =OFFSET(reference, rows, cols, [height], [width]) 

334  OR  Logical  Check if if any conditions in a test are TRUE  =OR(logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.])  =OR(logical1, [logical2]) 

335  PDURATION  Financial  Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value  =PDURATION(raterate [required]: Rate is the interest rate per period., pvpv [required]: Pv is the present value of the investment., fvfv [required]: Fv is the desired future value of the investment.)  =PDURATION(rate, pv, fv) 

336  PEARSON  Statistical  Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from 1  =PEARSON(array1array1 [required]: A set of independent values., array2array2 [required]: A set of dependent values.)  =PEARSON(array1, array2) 

337  PERCENTILE  Compatibility  Returns the kth percentile of values in a range  =PERCENTILE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The percentile value in the range 0.)  =PERCENTILE(array, k) 

338  PERCENTILE.EXC  Statistical  Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from 1  =PERCENTILE.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing.)  =PERCENTILE.EXC(array, k) 

339  PERCENTILE.INC  Statistical  Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0  =PERCENTILE.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The percentile value in the range 0.)  =PERCENTILE.INC(array, k) 

340  PERCENTRANK  Compatibility  Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set  =PERCENTRANK(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing., xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])  =PERCENTRANK(array, x, [significance]) 

341  PERCENTRANK.EXC  Statistical  Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0  =PERCENTRANK.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing , xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])  =PERCENTRANK.EXC(array, x, [significance]) 

342  PERCENTRANK.INC  Statistical  Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0  =PERCENTRANK.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing., xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])  =PERCENTRANK.INC(array, x, [significance]) 

343  PERMUT  Statistical  Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects  =PERMUT(numbernumber [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.)  =PERMUT(number, number_chosen) 

344  PERMUTATIONA  Statistical  Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects  =PERMUTATIONA(numbernumber [required]: An integer that describes the total number of objects., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.)  =PERMUTATIONA(number, number_chosen) 

345  PHI  Statistical  Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution  =PHI(xx [required]: X is the number for which you want the density of the standard normal distribution.)  =PHI(x) 

346  PHONETIC  Text  Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string  =PHONETIC(referencereference [required]: Text string or a reference to a single cell or a range of cells that contain a furigana text string.)  =PHONETIC(reference) 

347  PI  Math and Trigonometry  Returns pi (3.14159265358979) with 15 digits  =PI()  =PI()  
348  PMT  Financial  Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate  =PMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate for the loan., npernper [required]: The total number of payments for the loan., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now; also known as the principal., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type]) 

349  POISSON  Compatibility  Returns the Poisson distribution  =POISSON(xx [required]: The number of events., meanmean [required]: The expected numeric value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.)  =POISSON(x, mean, cumulative) 

350  POISSON.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Poisson distribution  =POISSON.DIST(xx [required]: The number of events., meanmean [required]: The expected numeric value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.)  =POISSON.DIST(x, mean, cumulative) 

351  POWER  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the result of a number raised to a power  =POWER(numbernumber [required]: The base number., powerpower [required]: The exponent to which the base number is raised.)  =POWER(number, power) 

352  PPMT  Financial  Returns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate  =PPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., perper [required]: Specifies the period and must be in the range 1 to nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pvpv [required]: The total amount that a series of future payments is worth now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =PPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type]) 

353  PRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest  =PRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =PRICE(settlement, maturity, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

354  PRICEDISC  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security  =PRICEDISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The security's discount rate., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =PRICEDISC(settlement, maturity, discount, redemption, [basis]) 

355  PRICEMAT  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity  =PRICEMAT(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate at date of issue., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =PRICEMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, yld, [basis]) 

356  PROB  Statistical  Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits  =PROB(x_rangex_range [required]: The range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities., prob_rangeprob_range [required]: A set of probabilities associated with values in x_range., [lower_limitlower_limit [optional]: The lower bound on the value for which you want a probability.], [upper_limitupper_limit [optional]: The optional upper bound on the value for which you want a probability.])  =PROB(x_range, prob_range, [lower_limit], [upper_limit]) 

357  PRODUCT  Math and Trigonometry  Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.  =PRODUCT(number1number1 [required]: The first number or range that you want to multiply., [number2], ...)  =PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...) 

358  PROPER  Text  Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter  =PROPER(texttext [required]: Text enclosed in quotation marks, a formula that returns text, or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize.)  =PROPER(text) 

359  PV  Financial  Calculates the present value of a loan or an investment, based on a constant interest rate  =PV(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])  =PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type]) 

360  QUARTILE  Compatibility  Returns the quartile of a data set  =QUARTILE(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)  =QUARTILE(array, quart) 

361  QUARTILE.EXC  Statistical  Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0  =QUARTILE.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)  =QUARTILE.EXC(array, quart) 

362  QUARTILE.INC  Statistical  Returns the quartile of a data set, based on percentile values from 0  =QUARTILE.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)  =QUARTILE.INC(array, quart) 

363  QUOTIENT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the integer portion of a division  =QUOTIENT(numeratornumerator [required]: The dividend., denominatordenominator [required]: The divisor)  =QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator) 

364  RADIANS  Math and Trigonometry  Converts degrees to radians  =RADIANS(angleangle [required]: An angle in degrees that you want to convert.)  =RADIANS(angle) 

365  RAND  Math and Trigonometry  Converts degrees to radians  =RAND()  =RAND()  
366  RANDARRAY  Math and Trigonometry  Returns an array of random numbers.  =RANDARRAY([rowsrows [optional]: The number of rows to be returned], [columnscolumns [optional]: The number of columns to be returned], [minmin [optional]: The minimum number you would like returned], [maxmax [optional]: The maximum number you would like returned], [whole_numberwhole_number [optional]: Return a whole number or a decimal value])  =RANDARRAY([rows], [columns], [min], [max], [whole_number]) 

367  RANDBETWEEN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a random integer number between the numbers you specify  =RANDBETWEEN(bottombottom [required]: The smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return., toptop [required]: The largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.)  =RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top) 

368  RANK  Compatibility  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers  =RANK(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])  =RANK(number, ref, [order]) 

369  RANK.AVG  Statistical  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers: its size relative to other values in the list; if more than one value has the same rank, the average rank is returned  =RANK.AVG(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])  =RANK.AVG(number, ref, [order]) 

370  RANK.EQ  Statistical  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers  =RANK.EQ(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])  =RANK.EQ(number, ref, [order]) 

371  RATE  Financial  Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity  =RATE(npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value ??? the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.], [guessguess [optional]: Your guess for what the rate will be.])  =RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess]) 

372  RECEIVED  Financial  Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security  =RECEIVED(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., investmentinvestment [required]: The amount invested in the security., discountdiscount [required]: The security's discount rate., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =RECEIVED(settlement, maturity, investment, discount, [basis]) 

373  REGISTER.ID  Addin and Automation  Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered  =REGISTER.ID(module_textmodule_text [required]: Text specifying the name of the DLL that contains the function in Microsoft Excel for Windows., procedureprocedure [required]: Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows., [type_texttype_text [optional]: Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL.])  =REGISTER.ID(module_text, procedure, [type_text]) 

374  REPLACE  Text  Replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =REPLACE(old_textold_text [required]: Text in which you want to replace some characters., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text., num_charsnum_chars [required]: The number of characters in old_text that you want REPLACE to replace with new_text., new_textnew_text [required]: The text that will replace characters in old_text.)  =REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text) 

375  REPLACEB  Text  Replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =REPLACEB(old_textold_text [required]: Text in which you want to replace some characters., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text., num_bytesnum_bytes [required]: The number of bytes in old_text that you want REPLACEB to replace with, new_textnew_text [required]: The text that will replace characters in old_text.)  =REPLACEB(old_text, start_num, num_bytes, new_text) 

376  REPT  Text  Repeats text a given number of times  =REPT(texttext [required]: The text you want to repeat., number_timesnumber_times [required]: A positive number specifying the number of times to repeat text.)  =REPT(text, number_times) 

377  RIGHT  Text  Returns the last character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =RIGHT(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., [num_charsnum_chars [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHT to extract.])  =RIGHT(text, [num_chars]) 

378  RIGHTB  Text  Returns the last character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =RIGHTB(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., [num_bytesnum_bytes [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHTB to extract, based on bytes. ])  =RIGHTB(text, [num_bytes]) 

379  ROMAN  Math and Trigonometry  Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text  =ROMAN(numbernumber [required]: The Arabic numeral you want converted., [formform [optional]: A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want.])  =ROMAN(number, [form]) 

380  ROUND  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number to a specified number of digits  =ROUND(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to round., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.)  =ROUND(number, num_digits) 

381  ROUNDDOWN  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number down, toward zero  =ROUNDDOWN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded down., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)  =ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits) 

382  ROUNDUP  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero)  =ROUNDUP(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded up., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)  =ROUNDUP(number, num_digits) 

383  ROW  Lookup and Reference  Returns the row number of a reference  =ROW([referencereference [optional]: The cell or range of cells for which you want the row number.])  =ROW([reference]) 

384  ROWS  Lookup and Reference  Returns the number of rows in a reference or array  =ROWS(arrayarray [required]: An array, an array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of rows.)  =ROWS(array) 

385  RRI  Financial  Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment  =RRI(npernper [required]: Nper is the number of periods for the investment., pvpv [required]: Pv is the present value of the investment., fvfv [required]: Fv is the future value of the investment.)  =RRI(nper, pv, fv) 

386  RSQ  Statistical  Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's  =RSQ(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or range of data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: An array or range of data points.)  =RSQ(known_y's, known_x's) 

387  RTD  Lookup and Reference  Retrieves realtime data from a program that supports COM automation  =RTD(progidprogid [required]: The name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation addin that has been installed on the local computer., serverserver [required]: Name of the server where the addin should be run., topic1topic1 [required]: Parameter that represent a unique piece of realtime data, [topic2topic2 [optional]: Additional parameters], ...)  =RTD(progid, server, topic1, [topic2], ...) 

388  SEARCH  Text  Locate one text string within a second text string, and return starting position of second text string. Counts each single or doublebyte character as 1  =SEARCH(find_textfind_text [required]: The text that you want to find (needle), within_textwithin_text [required]: The text in which you want to search for (haystack), [start_numstart_num [optional]: Starting position of search ])  =SEARCH(find_text, within_text, [start_num]) 

389  SEARCHB  Text  Locate one text string within a second text string, and return starting position of second text string. Counts doublebyte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting  =SEARCHB(find_textfind_text [required]: The text that you want to find (needle), within_textwithin_text [required]: The text in which you want to search for (haystack), [start_numstart_num [optional]: Starting position of search ])  =SEARCHB(find_text, within_text, [start_num]) 

390  SEC  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the secant of an angle  =SEC(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the secant.)  =SEC(number) 

391  SECH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle  =SECH(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the hyperbolic secant.)  =SECH(number) 

392  SECOND  Date and Time  Returns the seconds of a time value  =SECOND(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the seconds you want to find.)  =SECOND(serial_number) 

393  SEQUENCE  Math and Trigonometry  Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4  =SEQUENCE(rowsrows [required]: The number of rows to be returned, [columnscolumns [required]: The number of columns to be returned], [startstart [optional]: Sequence start value], [stepstep [optional]: Sequence Increments])  =SEQUENCE(rows, [columns], [start], [step]) 

394  SERIESSUM  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of a power series based on approximation by defined power series expansion formula  =SERIESSUM(xx [required]: The input value to the power series., nn [required]: The initial power to which you want to raise x., mm [required]: The step by which to increase n for each term in the series., coefficientscoefficients [required]: A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.)  =SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients) 

395  SHEET  IS Functions and Information  Returns the sheet number of the reference sheet  =SHEET(valuevalue [required]: Value is the name of a sheet or a reference for which you want the sheet number.)  =SHEET(value) 

396  SHEETS  IS Functions and Information  Returns the number of sheets in a reference  =SHEETS(referencereference [required]: Reference is a reference for which you want to know the number of sheets it contains.)  =SHEETS(reference) 

397  SIGN  Math and Trigonometry  Determines the sign of a number  =SIGN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)  =SIGN(number) 

398  SIN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sine of the given angle  =SIN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the sine.)  =SIN(number) 

399  SINH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number  =SINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)  =SINH(number) 

400  SKEW  Statistical  Returns the skewness of a distribution  =SKEW(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate skewness., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =SKEW(number1, [number2], ...) 

401  SKEW.P  Statistical  Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population  =SKEW.P(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate population skewness., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =SKEW.P(number1, [number2], ...) 

402  SLN  Financial  Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period  =SLN(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).)  =SLN(cost, salvage, life) 

403  SLOPE  Statistical  Returns the slope of the linear regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's  =SLOPE(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or cell range of numeric dependent data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The set of independent data points.)  =SLOPE(known_y's, known_x's) 

404  SMALL  Statistical  Returns the kth smallest value in a data set  =SMALL(arrayarray [required]: An array or range of numerical data for which you want to determine the kth smallest value., kk [required]: The position (from the smallest) in the array or range of data to return.)  =SMALL(array, k) 

405  SORT  Lookup and Reference  Sorts the contents of a range or array  =SORT(arrayarray [required]: The range, or array to sort, [sort_indexsort_index [required]: A number indicating the row or column to sort by], [sort_ordersort_order [optional]: Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), 1 for descending order], [by_colby_col [optional]: A logical value indicating the desired sort direction; FALSE to sort by row (default), TRUE to sort by colum])  =SORT(array, [sort_index], [sort_order], [by_col]) 

406  SORTBY  Lookup and Reference  Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array  =SORTBY(arrayarray [required]: The range, or array to sort, by_array1by_array1 [required]: A number indicating the row or column to sort by, [sort_order1sort_order1 [optional]: Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), 1 for descending order], [by_array2, sort_order2by_array2, sort_order2 [optional]: Additional ranges/arrays and sort order]  =SORTBY(array, by_array1, [sort_order1], [by_array2, sort_order2] 

407  SQRT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a positive square root  =SQRT(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want the square root.)  =SQRT(number) 

408  SQRTPI  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the square root of (number * pi)  =SQRTPI(numbernumber [required]: The number by which pi is multiplied.)  =SQRTPI(number) 

409  STANDARDIZE  Statistical  Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev  =STANDARDIZE(xx [required]: The value you want to normalize., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)  =STANDARDIZE(x, mean, standard_dev) 

410  STDEV  Compatibility  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample  =STDEV(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to a sample of a population], ...)  =STDEV(number1, [number2], ...) 

411  STDEV.P  Statistical  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments (ignores logical values and text)  =STDEV.P(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers arguments], ...)  =STDEV.P(number1, [number2], ...) 

412  STDEV.S  Statistical  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample (ignores logical values and text in the sample)  =STDEV.S(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)  =STDEV.S(number1, [number2], ...) 

413  STDEVA  Statistical  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample  =STDEVA(value1, [value2], ...)  =STDEVA(value1, [value2], ...)  
414  STDEVP  Compatibility  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments  =STDEVP(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)  =STDEVP(number1, [number2], ...) 

415  STDEVPA  Statistical  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments, including text and logical values  =STDEVPA(value1value1 [required]: The first value corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional values], ...)  =STDEVPA(value1, [value2], ...) 

416  STEYX  Statistical  Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression  =STEYX(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or range of dependent data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: An array or range of independent data points.)  =STEYX(known_y's, known_x's) 

417  SUBSTITUTE  Text  Substitutes new_text for old_text in a text string  =SUBSTITUTE(texttext [required]: The text or the reference to a cell containing text for which you want to substitute characters., old_textold_text [required]: The text you want to replace., new_textnew_text [required]: The text you want to replace old_text with., [instance_numinstance_num [optional]: Specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text.])  =SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num]) 

418  SUBTOTAL  Math and Trigonometry  Returns a subtotal in a list or database  =SUBTOTAL(function_numfunction_num [required]: The number 111 or 101111 that specifies the function to use for the subtotal., ref1ref1 [required]: The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Additional optional references], ...)  =SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, [ref2], ...) 

419  SUM  Math and Trigonometry  Adds values, cell references or ranges or a mix of all three  =SUM(number1number1 [required]: First number to add,[number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers],...)  =SUM(number1,[number2],...) 

420  SUMIF  Math and Trigonometry  Sum the values in a range that meet criteria that you specify  =SUMIF(rangerange [required]: The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added., [sum_rangesum_range [optional]: The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument.])  =SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range]) 

421  SUMIFS  Math and Trigonometry  Sums all of its arguments that meet multiple criteria.  =SUMIFS(sum_rangesum_range [required]: The range of cells to sum., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [optional]: The range that is tested using CRITERIA1, criteria1criteria1 [optional]: The criteria that defines which cells in CRITERIA_RANGE1 will be added., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional critiera and criteria ranges], ...)  =SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...) 

422  SUMPRODUCT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of the products of corresponding ranges or arrays  =SUMPRODUCT(array1array1 [required]: The first array argument whose components you want to multiply and then add., [array2array2 [optional]: Additional optional array argument], ...)  =SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], ...) 

423  SUMSQ  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments  =SUMSQ(number1number1 [required]: Number arguments for which you want the sum of the squares, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)  =SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...) 

424  SUMX2MY2  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays  =SUMX2MY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)  =SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y) 

425  SUMX2PY2  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays  =SUMX2PY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)  =SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y) 

426  SUMXMY2  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays  =SUMXMY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)  =SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y) 

427  SWITCH  Logical  Evaluates one expression against a list of values, and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value.  =SWITCH(expressionexpression [required]: Expression (such as a number, date or some text) that will be compared against values, value1value1 [required]: First value that will be compared against expression., result1result1 [required]: First result to be returned when the corresponding value matches expression, [default_or_value2, result2default_or_value2, result2 [optional]: Optional default value if no matches are found, or additional optional values/ result]  =SWITCH(expression, value1, result1, [default_or_value2, result2] 

428  SYD  Financial  Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period  =SYD(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., perper [required]: The period and must use the same units as life.)  =SYD(cost, salvage, life, per) 

429  T  Text  Returns the text referred to by value  =T(valuevalue [required]: The value you want to test.)  =T(value) 

430  T.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Student's lefttailed tdistribution  =T.DIST(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution , deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)  =T.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative) 

431  T.DIST.2T  Statistical  Returns the twotailed Student's tdistribution  =T.DIST.2T(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.)  =T.DIST.2T(x, deg_freedom) 

432  T.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the righttailed Student's tdistribution  =T.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.)  =T.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom) 

433  T.INV  Statistical  Returns the twotailed inverse of the Student's tdistribution  =T.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the Student's tdistribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)  =T.INV(probability, deg_freedom) 

434  T.INV.2T  Statistical  Returns the twotailed inverse of the Student's tdistribution  =T.INV.2T(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the Student's tdistribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)  =T.INV.2T(probability, deg_freedom) 

435  T.TEST  Statistical  Returns the probability associated with a Student's tTest  =T.TEST(array1array1 [required]: The first data set., array2array2 [required]: The second data set., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails., typetype [required]: The kind of tTest to perform.)  =T.TEST(array1, array2, tails, type) 

436  TAN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the tangent of the given angle  =TAN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the tangent.)  =TAN(number) 

437  TANH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number  =TANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)  =TANH(number) 

438  TBILLEQ  Financial  Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill  =TBILLEQ(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The Treasury bill's discount rate.)  =TBILLEQ(settlement, maturity, discount) 

439  TBILLPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill  =TBILLPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The Treasury bill's discount rate.)  =TBILLPRICE(settlement, maturity, discount) 

440  TBILLYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield for a Treasury bill  =TBILLYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., prpr [required]: The Treasury bill's price per $100 face value.)  =TBILLYIELD(settlement, maturity, pr) 

441  TDIST  Compatibility  Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed  =TDIST(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails to return.)  =TDIST(x, deg_freedom, tails) 

442  TEXT  Text  Changes the way a number appears by applying formatting to it with format codes  =TEXT(valuevalue [required]: A numeric value that you want to be converted into text., format_textformat_text [required]: A text string that defines the formatting that you want to be applied to the supplied value.)  =TEXT(value, format_text) 

443  TEXTJOIN  Text  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined  =TEXTJOIN(delimiterdelimiter [required]: A text string, either empty, or one or more characters enclosed by double quotes, or a reference to a valid text string., ignore_emptyignore_empty [required]: If TRUE, ignores empty cells., text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional optional text items], ...)  =TEXTJOIN(delimiter, ignore_empty, text1, [text2], ...) 

444  TIME  Date and Time  Returns the decimal number for a particular time  =TIME(hourhour [required]: A number from 0 (zero) to 32767 representing the hour., minuteminute [required]: A number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute., secondsecond [required]: A number from 0 to 32767 representing the second.)  =TIME(hour, minute, second) 

445  TIMEVALUE  Date and Time  Returns the decimal number of the time represented by a text string  =TIMEVALUE(time_texttime_text [required]: A text string that represents a time in any one of the Microsoft Excel time formats; for example, "6:45 PM" and "18:45" text strings within quotation marks that represent time.)  =TIMEVALUE(time_text) 

446  TINV  Compatibility  Returns the twotailed inverse of the Student's tdistribution  =TINV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the twotailed Student's tdistribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)  =TINV(probability, deg_freedom) 

447  TODAY  Date and Time  Returns the serial number of the current date  =TODAY()  =TODAY()  
448  TRANSPOSE  Lookup and Reference  Returns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range, or vice ersa.  =TRANSPOSE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of cells to transpose. )  =TRANSPOSE(array) 

449  TREND  Statistical  Returns values along a linear trend  =TREND(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of yvalues you already know in the relationship y = mx + b, [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of xvalues that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b], [new_x'snew_x's [optional]: New xvalues for which you want TREND to return corresponding yvalues], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0])  =TREND(known_y's, [known_x's], [new_x's], [const]) 

450  TRIM  Text  Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words  =TRIM(texttext [required]: The text from which you want spaces removed.)  =TRIM(text) 

451  TRIMMEAN  Statistical  Returns the mean of the interior of a data set  =TRIMMEAN(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of values to trim and average., percentpercent [required]: The fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation.)  =TRIMMEAN(array, percent) 

452  TRUE  Logical  Returns the logical value TRUE  =TRUE()  =TRUE()  
453  TRUNC  Math and Trigonometry  Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number  =TRUNC(numbernumber [required]: The number you want to truncate., [num_digitsnum_digits [optional]: A number specifying the precision of the truncation.])  =TRUNC(number, [num_digits]) 

454  TTEST  Compatibility  Returns the probability associated with a Student's tTest.  =TTEST(array1array1 [required]: The first data set., array2array2 [required]: The second data set., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails., typetype [required]: The kind of tTest to perform.)  =TTEST(array1, array2, tails, type) 

455  TYPE  IS Functions and Information  Returns the type of value  =TYPE(valuevalue [required]: Can be any Microsoft Excel value, such as a number, text, logical value, and so on.)  =TYPE(value) 

456  UNICHAR  Text  Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by the given numeric value  =UNICHAR(numbernumber [required]: Number is the Unicode number that represents the character.)  =UNICHAR(number) 

457  UNICODE  Text  Returns the number (code point) corresponding to the first character of the text  =UNICODE(texttext [required]: Text is the character for which you want the Unicode value.)  =UNICODE(text) 

458  UNIQUE  Lookup and Reference  Returns a list of unique values in a list or range  =UNIQUE(arrayarray [required]: The range or array from which to return unique rows or columns,[by_colby_col [optional]: A logical value indicating how to compare. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.],[exactly_onceexactly_once [optional]: A logical value indicating rows or colums that occur exactly. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.])  =UNIQUE(array,[by_col],[exactly_once]) 

459  UPPER  Text  Converts text to uppercase  =UPPER(texttext [required]: The text you want converted to uppercase.)  =UPPER(text) 

460  VALUE  Text  Converts a text string that represents a number to a number  =VALUE(texttext [required]: The text enclosed in quotation marks or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to convert.)  =VALUE(text) 

461  VALUETOTEXT  Text  Returns text from any specified value  =VALUETOTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value to return as text., [formatformat [optional]: The format of the returned data, one of two values:])  =VALUETOTEXT(value, [format]) 

462  VAR  Compatibility  Estimates variance based on a sample  =VAR(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =VAR(number1, [number2], ...) 

463  VAR.P  Statistical  Calculates variance based on the entire population (ignores logical values and text in the population)  =VAR.P(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =VAR.P(number1, [number2], ...) 

464  VAR.S  Statistical  Estimates variance based on a sample (ignores logical values and text in the sample)  =VAR.S(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =VAR.S(number1, [number2], ...) 

465  VARA  Statistical  Estimates variance based on a sample  =VARA(value1value1 [required]: The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional value arguments.], ...)  =VARA(value1, [value2], ...) 

466  VARP  Compatibility  Calculates variance based on the entire population  =VARP(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)  =VARP(number1, [number2], ...) 

467  VARPA  Statistical  Calculates variance based on the entire population  =VARPA(value1value1 [required]: The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional value arguments.], ...)  =VARPA(value1, [value2], ...) 

468  VDB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for any period you specify, including partial periods, using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method you specify  =VDB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., start_periodstart_period [required]: The starting period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., end_periodend_period [required]: The ending period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [factorfactor [optional]: The rate at which the balance declines.], [no_switchno_switch [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to switch to straightline depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.])  =VDB(cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, [factor], [no_switch]) 

469  VLOOKUP  Lookup and Reference  Find values in a table or a range by row  =VLOOKUP (lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up which in first column of TABLE_ARRAY argument., table_arraytable_array [required]: The range of cells in which to search, col_index_numcol_index_num [optional]: Column number of value to return from TABLE_ARRAY argument, [range_lookuprange_lookup [optional]: Logical value to search approximate (1/TRUE) or exact (0/FALSE)])  =VLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup]) 

470  WEBSERVICE  Web  Returns data from an URL  =WEBSERVICE(urlurl [required]: The URL of the web service to be called)  =WEBSERVICE(url) 

471  WEEKDAY  Date and Time  Returns the day of the week corresponding to a date  =WEEKDAY(serial_numberserial_number [required]: A sequential number that represents the date of the day you are trying to find., [return_typereturn_type [optional]: A number that determines the type of return value.])  =WEEKDAY(serial_number, [return_type]) 

472  WEEKNUM  Date and Time  Returns the week number of a specific date  =WEEKNUM(serial_numberserial_number [required]: A date within the week., [return_typereturn_type [optional]: A number that determines on which day the week begins.])  =WEEKNUM(serial_number, [return_type]) 

473  WEIBULL  Compatibility  Returns the Weibull distribution  =WEIBULL(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Determines the form of the function.)  =WEIBULL(x, alpha, beta, cumulative) 

474  WEIBULL.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Weibull distribution  =WEIBULL.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Determines the form of the function.)  =WEIBULL.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative) 

475  WORKDAY  Date and Time  Returns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date)  =WORKDAY(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., daysdays [required]: The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date., [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.])  =WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays]) 

476  WORKDAY.INTL  Date and Time  Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays with custom weekend parameters  =WORKDAY.INTL(start_datestart_date [required]: The start date, truncated to integer., daysdays [required]: The number of workdays before or after the start_date., [weekendweekend [optional]: Indicates the days of the week that are weekend days and are not considered working days.], [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional set of one or more dates that are to be excluded from the working day calendar.])  =WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, days, [weekend], [holidays]) 

477  XIRR  Financial  Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic  =XIRR(valuesvalues [required]: A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates., datesdates [required]: A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments., [guessguess [optional]: A number that you guess is close to the result of XIRR.])  =XIRR(values, dates, [guess]) 

478  XLOOKUP  Lookup and Reference  Find values in a table or a range by row  =XLOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up, lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: Array or range to search, return_arrayreturn_array [required]: Array or range to return, [if_not_foundif_not_found [optional]: Value to return if match is not found], [match_modematch_mode [optional]: Match mode 0, 1, 1, or 2], [search_modesearch_mode [optional]: Search mode 0, 1, 1, 2, or 2])  =XLOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_array, return_array, [if_not_found], [match_mode], [search_mode]) 

479  XMATCH  Lookup and reference  Searches for a specified item in an array or range of cells, and then returns the item's relative position  =XMATCH(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up, lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: Array or range to search, [match_modematch_mode [optional]: Match mode 0, 1, 1, or 2], [search_modesearch_mode [optional]: Search mode 0, 1, 1, 2, or 2])  =XMATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_mode], [search_mode]) 

480  XNPV  Financial  Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic  =XNPV(raterate [required]: The discount rate to apply to the cash flows., valuesvalues [required]: A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates., datesdates [required]: A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments.)  =XNPV(rate, values, dates) 

481  XOR  Logical  Returns a logical Exclusive Or of all arguments  =XOR(logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.], ...)  =XOR(logical1, [logical2], ...) 

482  YEAR  Date and Time  Returns the year corresponding to a date  =YEAR(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the year you want to find.)  =YEAR(serial_number) 

483  YEARFRAC  Date and Time  Returns the year corresponding to a date  =YEARFRAC(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the end date., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis]) 

484  YIELD  Financial  Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest  =YIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., prpr [required]: The security's price per $100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =YIELD(settlement, maturity, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis]) 

485  YIELDDISC  Financial  Returns the annual yield for a discounted security  =YIELDDISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., prpr [required]: The security's price per $100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per $100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =YIELDDISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis]) 

486  YIELDMAT  Financial  Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity  =YIELDMAT(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate at date of issue., prpr [required]: The security's price per $100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])  =YIELDMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, pr, [basis]) 

487  Z.TEST  Statistical  Returns the onetailed Pvalue of a ztest  =Z.TEST(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data against which to test x., xx [required]: The value to test., [sigmasigma [optional]: The population (known) standard deviation.])  =Z.TEST(array, x, [sigma]) 

488  ZTEST  Compatibility  Returns the onetailed Pvalue of a ztest  =ZTEST(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data against which to test x., xx [required]: The value to test., [sigmasigma [optional]: The population (known) standard deviation.])  =ZTEST(array, x, [sigma]) 

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