## List of all Excel Functions with Syntax and Arguments

This reference table lists all officially documented Excel Functions. It is based on the Excel Help documentation and linked in each row when clicking on the function name. Separate category pages can be reached via the hyperlinks in 'Category' column. Export the table and/or display additional columns via the symbols to the top right of the table. Please report errors or inconsistencies via the comment function at the bottom of this page.

#Excel FunctionCategoryDescriptionSyntax with ArgumentsSyntax onlyArguments only
1ABSMath and TrigonometryReturns the absolute value of a number=ABS(numbernumber [required]: The real number of which you want the absolute value.)=ABS(number)
• number (required): The real number of which you want the absolute value.
2ACCRINTFinancialReturns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest=ACCRINT(issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_interestfirst_interest [required]: The security's first interest date., settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., parpar [required]: The security's par value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.], [calc_methodcalc_method [optional]: A logical value that specifies the way to calculate the total accrued interest when the date of settlement is later than the date of first_interest.])=ACCRINT(issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, [basis], [calc_method])
• issue (required): The security's issue date.
• first_interest (required): The security's first interest date.
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• rate (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• par (required): The security's par value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
• calc_method (optional): A logical value that specifies the way to calculate the total accrued interest when the date of settlement is later than the date of first_interest.
3ACCRINTMFinancialReturns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity=ACCRINTM(issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., settlementsettlement [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., parpar [required]: The security's par value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=ACCRINTM(issue, settlement, rate, par, [basis])
• issue (required): The security's issue date.
• settlement (required): The security's maturity date.
• rate (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• par (required): The security's par value.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
4ACOSMath and TrigonometryReturns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number=ACOS(numbernumber [required]: The cosine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.)=ACOS(number)
• number (required): The cosine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.
5ACOSHMath and TrigonometryReturns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number=ACOSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number equal to or greater than 1.)=ACOSH(number)
• number (required): Any real number equal to or greater than 1.
6ACOTMath and TrigonometryReturns the principal value of the arccotangent, or inverse cotangent, of a number=ACOT(numbernumber [required]: Number is the cotangent of the angle you want.)=ACOT(number)
• number (required): Number is the cotangent of the angle you want.
7ACOTHMath and TrigonometryReturns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number=ACOTH(numbernumber [required]: The absolute value of Number must be greater than 1.)=ACOTH(number)
• number (required): The absolute value of Number must be greater than 1.
8ADDRESSLookup and ReferenceObtain the address of a cell in a worksheet, given specified row and column numbers=ADDRESS(row_numrow_num [required]: A numeric value that specifies the row number to use in the cell reference., column_numcolumn_num [required]: A numeric value that specifies the column number to use in the cell reference., [abs_numabs_num [optional]: A numeric value that specifies the type of reference to return.], [a1a1 [optional]: A logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style.], [sheet_textsheet_text [optional]: A text value that specifies the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference.])=ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text])
• row_num (required): A numeric value that specifies the row number to use in the cell reference.
• column_num (required): A numeric value that specifies the column number to use in the cell reference.
• abs_num (optional): A numeric value that specifies the type of reference to return.
• a1 (optional): A logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style.
• sheet_text (optional): A text value that specifies the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference.
9AGGREGATEMath and TrigonometryReturns an aggregate in a list or database=AGGREGATE(function_numfunction_num [required]: A number 1 to 19 that specifies which function to use., optionsoptions [required]: A numerical value that determines which values to ignore in the evaluation range for the function., ref1ref1 [required]: The first numeric argument for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value.], ...)=AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], ...)
• function_num (required): A number 1 to 19 that specifies which function to use.
• options (required): A numerical value that determines which values to ignore in the evaluation range for the function.
• ref1 (required): The first numeric argument for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value.
• ref2 (optional): Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value.
10AMORDEGRCFinancialReturns the depreciation for each accounting period=AMORDEGRC(costcost [required]: The cost of the asset., date_purchaseddate_purchased [required]: The date of the purchase of the asset., first_periodfirst_period [required]: The date of the end of the first period., salvagesalvage [required]: The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset., periodperiod [required]: The period., raterate [required]: The rate of depreciation., [basisbasis [optional]: The year basis to be used.])=AMORDEGRC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
• cost (required): The cost of the asset.
• date_purchased (required): The date of the purchase of the asset.
• first_period (required): The date of the end of the first period.
• salvage (required): The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset.
• period (required): The period.
• rate (required): The rate of depreciation.
• basis (optional): The year basis to be used.
11AMORLINCFinancialReturns the depreciation for each accounting period=AMORLINC(costcost [required]: The cost of the asset., date_purchaseddate_purchased [required]: The date of the purchase of the asset., first_periodfirst_period [required]: The date of the end of the first period., salvagesalvage [required]: The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset., periodperiod [required]: The period., raterate [required]: The rate of depreciation., [basisbasis [optional]: The year basis to be used.])=AMORLINC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
• cost (required): The cost of the asset.
• date_purchased (required): The date of the purchase of the asset.
• first_period (required): The date of the end of the first period.
• salvage (required): The salvage value at the end of the life of the asset.
• period (required): The period.
• rate (required): The rate of depreciation.
• basis (optional): The year basis to be used.
12ANDLogicalCheck if all conditions in a test are TRUE=AND (logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.], ...)=AND (logical1, [logical2], ...)
• logical1 (required): The first logical condition.
• logical2 (optional): Additional logical condition.
13ARABICMath and TrigonometryConverts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral=ARABIC(texttext [required]: A string enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (""), or a reference to a cell containing text.)=ARABIC(text)
• text (required): A string enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (""), or a reference to a cell containing text.
14AREASLookup and ReferenceReturns the number of areas in a reference=AREAS(referencereference [required]: A reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas.)=AREAS(reference)
• reference (required): A reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas.
15ARRAYTOTEXTTextReturns an array of text values from any specified range=ARRAYTOTEXT(arrayarray [required]: The array to return as text., [formatformat [optional]: The format of the returned data as 0 (default) or 1 (strict format including escape characters)])=ARRAYTOTEXT(array, [format])
• array (required): The array to return as text.
• format (optional): The format of the returned data as 0 (default) or 1 (strict format including escape characters)
16ASCTextChanges full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters For double-byte character set=ASC(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)=ASC(text)
• text (required): The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.
17ASINMath and TrigonometryReturns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number=ASIN(numbernumber [required]: The sine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.)=ASIN(number)
• number (required): The sine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.
18ASINHMath and TrigonometryReturns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number=ASINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=ASINH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
19ATANMath and TrigonometryReturns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number. =ATAN(numbernumber [required]: The tangent of the angle you want.)=ATAN(number)
• number (required): The tangent of the angle you want.
20ATAN2Math and TrigonometryReturns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x- and y-coordinates=ATAN2(x_numx_num [required]: The x-coordinate of the point., y_numy_num [required]: The y-coordinate of the point.)=ATAN2(x_num, y_num)
• x_num (required): The x-coordinate of the point.
• y_num (required): The y-coordinate of the point.
21ATANHMath and TrigonometryReturns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. =ATANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number between 1 and -1.)=ATANH(number)
• number (required): Any real number between 1 and -1.
22AVEDEVStatisticalReturns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean=AVEDEV(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations., [number2], ...)=AVEDEV(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations.
23AVERAGEStatistical returns the average of those numbers=AVERAGE(number1number1 [required]: The first number, cell reference, or range for which you want the average., [number2number2 [optional]: Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations.], ...)=AVERAGE(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number, cell reference, or range for which you want the average.
• number2 (optional): Number for which you want the average of the absolute deviations.
24AVERAGEAStatisticalCalculates the average (arithmetic mean) of the values in the list of arguments=AVERAGEA(value1value1 [required]: Calculates the average of the values in the list of arguments, [value2value2 [optional]: Optional additional value], ...)=AVERAGEA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): Calculates the average of the values in the list of arguments
• value2 (optional): Optional additional value
25AVERAGEIFStatisticalReturns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria=AVERAGEIF(rangerange [required]: One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that defines which cells are averaged., [average_rangeaverage_range [optional]: The actual set of cells to average.])=AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range])
• range (required): One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers.
• criteria (required): The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that defines which cells are averaged.
• average_range (optional): The actual set of cells to average.
26AVERAGEIFSStatisticalReturns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria=AVERAGEIFS(average_rangeaverage_range [required]: One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Range in which to evaluate the associated crite. Additional ranges are optional, criteria1criteria1 [required]: Criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that define which cells will be averaged., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional range/criteria], ...)=AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• average_range (required): One or more cells to average, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers.
• criteria_range1 (required): Range in which to evaluate the associated crite. Additional ranges are optional
• criteria1 (required): Criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that define which cells will be averaged.
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional optional range/criteria
27BAHTTEXTTextConverts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix of "Baht=BAHTTEXT(numbernumber [required]: A number you want to convert to text, or a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number.)=BAHTTEXT(number)
• number (required): A number you want to convert to text, or a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number.
28BASEMath and TrigonometryConverts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)=BASE(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to convert., radixradix [required]: The base radix that you want to convert the number into., [min_lengthmin_length [optional]: The minimum length of the returned string.])=BASE(number, radix, [min_length])
• number (required): The number that you want to convert.
• radix (required): The base radix that you want to convert the number into.
• min_length (optional): The minimum length of the returned string.
29BESSELIEngineeringReturns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments=BESSELI(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the Bessel function.)=BESSELI(x, n)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• n (required): The order of the Bessel function.
30BESSELJEngineeringReturns the Bessel function=BESSELJ(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the Bessel function.)=BESSELJ(x, n)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• n (required): The order of the Bessel function.
31BESSELKEngineeringReturns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel functions evaluated for purely imaginary arguments=BESSELK(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the function.)=BESSELK(x, n)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• n (required): The order of the function.
32BESSELYEngineeringReturns the Bessel function, which is also called the Weber function or the Neumann function=BESSELY(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., nn [required]: The order of the function.)=BESSELY(x, n)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• n (required): The order of the function.
33BETA.DISTStatisticalReturns the beta distribution=BETA.DIST(xx [required]: The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function

, alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])
=BETA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative, [a], [b])
• x (required): The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function

• alpha (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
• a (optional): A lower bound to the interval of x.
• b (optional): An upper bound to the interval of x.
34BETA.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the beta cumulative probability density function (BETA=BETA.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the beta distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])=BETA.INV(probability, alpha, beta, [a], [b])
• probability (required): A probability associated with the beta distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter the distribution.
• a (optional): A lower bound to the interval of x.
• b (optional): An upper bound to the interval of x.
35BETADISTCompatibilityReturns the cumulative beta probability density function=BETADIST(xx [required]: The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter of the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])=BETADIST(x, alpha, beta, [a], [b])
• x (required): The value between A and B at which to evaluate the function.
• alpha (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• a (optional): A lower bound to the interval of x.
• b (optional): An upper bound to the interval of x.
36BETAINVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function for a specified beta distribution=BETAINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the beta distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter of the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter the distribution., [aa [optional]: A lower bound to the interval of x.], [bb [optional]: An upper bound to the interval of x.])=BETAINV(probability, alpha, beta, [a], [b])
• probability (required): A probability associated with the beta distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter of the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter the distribution.
• a (optional): A lower bound to the interval of x.
• b (optional): An upper bound to the interval of x.
37BIN2DECEngineeringConverts a binary number to decimal=BIN2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert. )=BIN2DEC(number)
• number (required): The binary number you want to convert.
38BIN2HEXEngineeringConverts a binary number to hexadecimal=BIN2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=BIN2HEX(number, [places])
• number (required): The binary number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
39BIN2OCTEngineeringConverts a binary number to octal=BIN2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The binary number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=BIN2OCT(number, [places])
• number (required): The binary number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
40BINOM.DISTStatisticalReturns the individual term binomial distribution probability=BINOM.DIST(number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success on each trial., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=BINOM.DIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative)
• number_s (required): The number of successes in trials.
• trials (required): The number of independent trials.
• probability_s (required): The probability of success on each trial.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
41BINOM.DIST.RANGEStatisticalReturns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution=BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success in each trial., number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., [number_s2number_s2 [optional]: If provided, returns the probability that the number of successful trials will fall between Number_s and number_s2.])=BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials, probability_s, number_s, [number_s2])
• trials (required): The number of independent trials.
• probability_s (required): The probability of success in each trial.
• number_s (required): The number of successes in trials.
• number_s2 (optional): If provided, returns the probability that the number of successful trials will fall between Number_s and number_s2.
42BINOM.INVStatisticalReturns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value=BINOM.INV(trialstrials [required]: The number of Bernoulli trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success on each trial., alphaalpha [required]: The criterion value.)=BINOM.INV(trials, probability_s, alpha)
• trials (required): The number of Bernoulli trials.
• probability_s (required): The probability of a success on each trial.
• alpha (required): The criterion value.
43BINOMDISTCompatibilityReturns the individual term binomial distribution probability=BINOMDIST(number_snumber_s [required]: The number of successes in trials., trialstrials [required]: The number of independent trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of success on each trial., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=BINOMDIST(number_s, trials, probability_s, cumulative)
• number_s (required): The number of successes in trials.
• trials (required): The number of independent trials.
• probability_s (required): The probability of success on each trial.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
44BITANDEngineeringReturns a bitwise 'AND' of two numbers=BITAND(number1number1 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.)=BITAND(number1, number2)
• number1 (required): Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.
• number2 (required): Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.
45BITLSHIFTEngineeringReturns a number shifted left by the specified number of bits=BITLSHIFT(numbernumber [required]: Number must be an integer greater than or equal to 0., shift_amountshift_amount [required]: Shift_amount must be an integer.)=BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
• number (required): Number must be an integer greater than or equal to 0.
• shift_amount (required): Shift_amount must be an integer.
46BITOREngineeringReturns a bitwise 'OR' of two numbers=BITOR(number1number1 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.)=BITOR(number1, number2)
• number1 (required): Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.
• number2 (required): Must be in decimal form and greater than or equal to 0.
47BITRSHIFTEngineeringReturns a number shifted right by the specified number of bits=BITRSHIFT(numbernumber [required]: Must be an integer greater than or equal to 0., shift_amountshift_amount [required]: Must be an integer.)=BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
• number (required): Must be an integer greater than or equal to 0.
• shift_amount (required): Must be an integer.
48BITXOREngineeringReturns a bitwise 'XOR' of two numbers=BITXOR(number1number1 [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0., number2number2 [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0.)=BITXOR(number1, number2)
• number1 (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0.
• number2 (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0.
49CALLAdd-in and AutomationCalls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource=CALL(module_textmodule_text [required]: Quoted text specifying the name of the dynamic link library (DLL) that contains the procedure in Microsoft Excel for Windows., procedureprocedure [required]: Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows., type_texttype_text [required]: Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL or code resource., [argument1argument1 [optional]: Arguments to be passed to the procedure.] ,...])=CALL(module_text, procedure, type_text, [argument1] ,...])
• module_text (required): Quoted text specifying the name of the dynamic link library (DLL) that contains the procedure in Microsoft Excel for Windows.
• procedure (required): Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows.
• type_text (required): Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL or code resource.
• argument1 (optional): Arguments to be passed to the procedure.
50CEILINGMath and TrigonometryReturns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING(numbernumber [required]: Value you want to round., significancesignificance [required]: Multiple to which you want to round.)=CEILING(number, significance)
• number (required): Value you want to round.
• significance (required): Multiple to which you want to round.
51CEILING.MATHMath and TrigonometryRounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING.MATH(numbernumber [required]: Number must be less than 9., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which Number is to be rounded.], [modemode [optional]: For negative numbers, controls whether Number is rounded toward or away from zero.])=CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])
• number (required): Number must be less than 9.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which Number is to be rounded.
• mode (optional): For negative numbers, controls whether Number is rounded toward or away from zero.
52CEILING.PRECISEMath and TrigonometryReturns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=CEILING.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which number is to be rounded.
53CELLIS Functions and InformationReturns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell=CELL(info_typeinfo_type [required]: A text value that specifies what type of cell information you want to return., [referencereference [optional]: The cell that you want information about.])=CELL(info_type, [reference])
• info_type (required): A text value that specifies what type of cell information you want to return.
• reference (optional): The cell that you want information about.
54CHARTextReturns the character specified by a number=CHAR(numbernumber [required]: A number between 1 and 255 specifying which character you want.)=CHAR(number)
• number (required): A number between 1 and 255 specifying which character you want.
55CHIDISTCompatibilityReturns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution=CHIDIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)=CHIDIST(x, deg_freedom)
• x (required): The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
56CHIINVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution=CHIINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)=CHIINV(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
57CHISQ.DISTStatisticalReturns the chi-squared distribution=CHISQ.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=CHISQ.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
58CHISQ.DIST.RTStatisticalReturns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution=CHISQ.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)=CHISQ.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom)
• x (required): The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
59CHISQ.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution=CHISQ.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)=CHISQ.INV(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
60CHISQ.INV.RTStatisticalReturns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution=CHISQ.INV.RT(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom.)=CHISQ.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the chi-squared distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom.
61CHISQ.TESTStatisticalReturns the test for independence=CHISQ.TEST(actual_rangeactual_range [required]: The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values., expected_rangeexpected_range [required]: The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.)=CHISQ.TEST(actual_range, expected_range)
• actual_range (required): The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values.
• expected_range (required): The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.
62CHITESTCompatibilityReturns the test for independence=CHITEST(actual_rangeactual_range [required]: The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values., expected_rangeexpected_range [required]: The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.)=CHITEST(actual_range, expected_range)
• actual_range (required): The range of data that contains observations to test against expected values.
• expected_range (required): The range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.
63CHOOSELookup and ReferenceUses index_num to return a value from the list of value arguments=CHOOSE(index_numindex_num [required]: Specifies which value argument is selected., value1value1 [required]: Value arguments from which CHOOSE selects a value or an action to perform based on index_num., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional values], ...)=CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2], ...)
• index_num (required): Specifies which value argument is selected.
• value1 (required): Value arguments from which CHOOSE selects a value or an action to perform based on index_num.
64CLEANTextRemoves all nonprintable characters from text=CLEAN(texttext [required]: Any worksheet information from which you want to remove nonprintable characters.)=CLEAN(text)
• text (required): Any worksheet information from which you want to remove nonprintable characters.
65CODETextReturns a numeric code for the first character in a text string=CODE(texttext [required]: The text for which you want the code of the first character.)=CODE(text)
• text (required): The text for which you want the code of the first character.
66COLUMNLookup and ReferenceReturns the column number of the given cell reference.=COLUMN([referencereference [optional]: The cell or range of cells for which you want to return the column number.])=COLUMN([reference])
• reference (optional): The cell or range of cells for which you want to return the column number.
67COLUMNSLookup and ReferenceReturns the number of columns in an array or reference=COLUMNS(arrayarray [required]: An array or array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of columns.)=COLUMNS(array)
• array (required): An array or array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of columns.
68COMBINMath and TrigonometryReturns the number of combinations for a given number of items=COMBIN(numbernumber [required]: The number of items., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: The number of items in each combination.)=COMBIN(number, number_chosen)
• number (required): The number of items.
• number_chosen (required): The number of items in each combination.
69COMBINAMath and TrigonometryReturns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items=COMBINA(numbernumber [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0, and greater than or equal to Number_chosen., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: Must be greater than or equal to 0.)=COMBINA(number, number_chosen)
• number (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0, and greater than or equal to Number_chosen.
• number_chosen (required): Must be greater than or equal to 0.
70COMPLEXEngineeringConverts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj=COMPLEX(real_numreal_num [required]: The real coefficient of the complex number., i_numi_num [required]: The imaginary coefficient of the complex number., [suffixsuffix [optional]: The suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number.])=COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix])
• real_num (required): The real coefficient of the complex number.
• i_num (required): The imaginary coefficient of the complex number.
• suffix (optional): The suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number.
71CONCATTextCombines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings=CONCAT(text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional text items to be joined.], ..)=CONCAT(text1, [text2], ..)
• text1 (required): Text item to be joined.
• text2 (optional): Additional text items to be joined.
72CONCATENATETextCombines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings (deprecated; use CONCAT instead)=CONCATENATE(text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional text items to be joined.], ..)=CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ..)
• text1 (required): Text item to be joined.
• text2 (optional): Additional text items to be joined.
73CONFIDENCECompatibilityReturns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution=CONFIDENCE(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)=CONFIDENCE(alpha, standard_dev, size)
• alpha (required): The significance level used to compute the confidence level.
• standard_dev (required): The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known.
• size (required): The sample size.
74CONFIDENCE.NORMStatisticalReturns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution=CONFIDENCE.NORM(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)=CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha, standard_dev, size)
• alpha (required): The significance level used to compute the confidence level.
• standard_dev (required): The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known.
• size (required): The sample size.
75CONFIDENCE.TStatisticalReturns confidence interval for a population mean, using t distribution=CONFIDENCE.T(alphaalpha [required]: The significance level used to compute the confidence level., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known., sizesize [required]: The sample size.)=CONFIDENCE.T(alpha, standard_dev, size)
• alpha (required): The significance level used to compute the confidence level.
• standard_dev (required): The population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known.
• size (required): The sample size.
76CONVERTEngineeringConverts a number from one measurement system to another=CONVERT(numbernumber [required]: Input value., from_unitfrom_unit [required]: Input unit., to_unitto_unit [required]: Output unit.)=CONVERT(number, from_unit, to_unit)
• number (required): Input value.
• from_unit (required): Input unit.
• to_unit (required): Output unit.
77CORRELStatisticalReturns the correlation coefficient of two cell ranges=CORREL(array1array1 [required]: A range of cell values., array2array2 [required]: A second range of cell values.)=CORREL(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): A range of cell values.
• array2 (required): A second range of cell values.
78COSMath and TrigonometryReturns the cosine of the given angle=COS(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cosine.)=COS(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the cosine.
79COSHMath and TrigonometryReturns the hyperbolic cosine of a number=COSH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.)=COSH(number)
• number (required): Any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.
80COTMath and TrigonometryReturn the cotangent of an angle specified in radians=COT(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the cotangent.)=COT(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the cotangent.
81COTHMath and TrigonometryReturn the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle=COTH(numbernumber [required]: Number from which to calculate hyperbolic cotangent.)=COTH(number)
• number (required): Number from which to calculate hyperbolic cotangent.
82COUNTStatisticalCount the number of cells that contain numbers=COUNT(value1value1 [required]: The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional items to count.], ...)=COUNT(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers.
• value2 (optional): Additional items to count.
83COUNTAStatisticalCount the number of cells that are not empty in a range=COUNTA(value1value1 [required]: The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional items to count.], ...)=COUNTA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first item, cell reference, or range within which you want to count numbers.
• value2 (optional): Additional items to count.
84COUNTBLANKStatisticalCounts the number of empty cells in a range of cells=COUNTBLANK(rangerange [required]: The range from which you want to count the blank cells.)=COUNTBLANK(range)
• range (required): The range from which you want to count the blank cells.
85COUNTIFStatisticalCount the number of cells that meet a citeria=COUNTIF(rangerange [required]: The range from which you want to count the blank cells., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text.)=COUNTIF(range, criteria)
• range (required): The range from which you want to count the blank cells.
• criteria (required): The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text.
86COUNTIFSStatisticalApplies criteria to cells across multiple ranges and counts the number of times all criteria are met=COUNTIFS(criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: The first range in which to evaluate the associated criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional ranges and their associated criteria], ...)=COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• criteria_range1 (required): The first range in which to evaluate the associated criteria.
• criteria1 (required): The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text.
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional ranges and their associated criteria
87COUPDAYBSFinancialReturns the number of days from the beginning of a coupon period until its settlement date=COUPDAYBS(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPDAYBS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
88COUPDAYSFinancialReturns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date=COUPDAYS(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPDAYS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
89COUPDAYSNCFinancialReturns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date=COUPDAYSNC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPDAYSNC(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
90COUPNCDFinancialReturns a number that represents the next coupon date after the settlement date=COUPNCD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPNCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
91COUPNUMFinancialReturns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon=COUPNUM(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPNUM(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
92COUPPCDFinancialReturns a number that represents the previous coupon date before the settlement date=COUPPCD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=COUPPCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
93COVARCompatibilityReturns covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets=COVAR(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)=COVAR(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first cell range of integers.
• array2 (required): The second cell range of integers.
94COVARIANCE.PStatisticalReturns population covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets=COVARIANCE.P(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)=COVARIANCE.P(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first cell range of integers.
• array2 (required): The second cell range of integers.
95COVARIANCE.SStatisticalReturns the sample covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets=COVARIANCE.S(array1array1 [required]: The first cell range of integers., array2array2 [required]: The second cell range of integers.)=COVARIANCE.S(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first cell range of integers.
• array2 (required): The second cell range of integers.
96CRITBINOMCompatibilityReturns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value=CRITBINOM(trialstrials [required]: The number of Bernoulli trials., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success on each trial., alphaalpha [required]: The criterion value.)=CRITBINOM(trials, probability_s, alpha)
• trials (required): The number of Bernoulli trials.
• probability_s (required): The probability of a success on each trial.
• alpha (required): The criterion value.
97CSCMath and TrigonometryReturns the cosecant of an angle specified in radians=CSC(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate cosecant.)=CSC(number)
• number (required): Number from wich to calculate cosecant.
98CSCHMath and TrigonometryReturn the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle specified in radians=CSCH(numbernumber [required]: Number from wich to calculate hyperbolic cosecant.)=CSCH(number)
• number (required): Number from wich to calculate hyperbolic cosecant.
99CUBEKPIMEMBERCubeReturns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell=CUBEKPIMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., kpi_namekpi_name [required]: A text string of the name of the KPI in the cube., kpi_propertykpi_property [required]: The KPI component returned and can be one of the following:

, [captioncaption [optional]: An alternative text string that is displayed in the cell instead of kpi_name and kpi_property.])
=CUBEKPIMEMBER(connection, kpi_name, kpi_property, [caption])
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• kpi_name (required): A text string of the name of the KPI in the cube.
• kpi_property (required): The KPI component returned and can be one of the following:

• caption (optional): An alternative text string that is displayed in the cell instead of kpi_name and kpi_property.
100CUBEMEMBERCubeReturns a member or tuple from the cube=CUBEMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., member_expressionmember_expression [required]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) that evaluates to a unique member in the cube., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.])=CUBEMEMBER(connection, member_expression, [caption])
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• member_expression (required): A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) that evaluates to a unique member in the cube.
• caption (optional): A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.
101CUBEMEMBERPROPERTYCube in Excel, returns the value of a member property from a cube=CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., member_expressionmember_expression [required]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube., propertyproperty [required]: A text string of the name of the property returned or a reference to a cell that contains the name of the property.)=CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connection, member_expression, property)
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• member_expression (required): A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube.
• property (required): A text string of the name of the property returned or a reference to a cell that contains the name of the property.
102CUBERANKEDMEMBERCubeReturns the nth, or ranked, member in a set=CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., set_expressionset_expression [required]: A text string of a set expression, such as "{[Item1]., rankrank [required]: An integer value specifying the top value to return., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.])=CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connection, set_expression, rank, [caption])
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• set_expression (required): A text string of a set expression, such as "{[Item1].
• rank (required): An integer value specifying the top value to return.
• caption (optional): A text string displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.
103CUBESETCubeDefines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Excel=CUBESET(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., set_expressionset_expression [required]: A text string of a set expression that results in a set of members or tuples., [captioncaption [optional]: A text string that is displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.], [sort_ordersort_order [optional]: The type of sort, if any, to perform and can be one of the following:

], [sort_bysort_by [optional]: A text string of the value by which to sort.])
=CUBESET(connection, set_expression, [caption], [sort_order], [sort_by])
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• set_expression (required): A text string of a set expression that results in a set of members or tuples.
• caption (optional): A text string that is displayed in the cell instead of the caption, if one is defined, from the cube.
• sort_order (optional): The type of sort, if any, to perform and can be one of the following:

• sort_by (optional): A text string of the value by which to sort.
104CUBESETCOUNTCubeReturns the number of items in a set=CUBESETCOUNT(setset [required]: A text string of a Microsoft Excel expression that evaluates to a set defined by the CUBESET function.)=CUBESETCOUNT(set)
• set (required): A text string of a Microsoft Excel expression that evaluates to a set defined by the CUBESET function.
105CUBEVALUECubeReturns an aggregated value from the cube=CUBEVALUE(connectionconnection [required]: A text string of the name of the connection to the cube., [member_expressionmember_expression [optional]: A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube.1], ...)=CUBEVALUE(connection, [member_expression1], ...)
• connection (required): A text string of the name of the connection to the cube.
• member_expression (optional): A text string of a multidimensional expression (MDX) of a member within the cube.
106CUMIPMTFinancialReturns the cumulative interest paid on a loan between start_period and end_period=CUMIPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods., pvpv [required]: The present value., start_periodstart_period [required]: The first period in the calculation., end_periodend_period [required]: The last period in the calculation., typetype [required]: The timing of the payment.)=CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
• rate (required): The interest rate.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods.
• pv (required): The present value.
• start_period (required): The first period in the calculation.
• end_period (required): The last period in the calculation.
• type (required): The timing of the payment.
107CUMPRINCFinancialReturns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between start_period and end_period=CUMPRINC(raterate [required]: The interest rate., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods., pvpv [required]: The present value., start_periodstart_period [required]: The first period in the calculation., end_periodend_period [required]: The last period in the calculation., typetype [required]: The timing of the payment.)=CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
• rate (required): The interest rate.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods.
• pv (required): The present value.
• start_period (required): The first period in the calculation.
• end_period (required): The last period in the calculation.
• type (required): The timing of the payment.
108DATEDate and TimeCombines three separate values to form a date=DATE (yearyear [required]: The value of the year argument can include one to four digits. , monthmonth [required]: A positive or negative integer representing the month of the year from 1 to 12., dayday [required]: A positive or negative integer representing the day of the month from 1 to 31.)=DATE (year, month, day)
• year (required): The value of the year argument can include one to four digits.
• month (required): A positive or negative integer representing the month of the year from 1 to 12.
• day (required): A positive or negative integer representing the day of the month from 1 to 31.
109DATEDIFDate and TimeCalculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates=DATEDIF(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the first, or starting date of a given period., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the last, or ending, date of the period., unitunit [required]: The type of information that you want returned, where:)=DATEDIF(start_date, end_date, unit)
• start_date (required): A date that represents the first, or starting date of a given period.
• end_date (required): A date that represents the last, or ending, date of the period.
• unit (required): The type of information that you want returned, where:
110DATEVALUEDate and TimeConverts a date that is stored as text to a serial number that Excel recognizes as a date. =DATEVALUE(date_textdate_text [required]: Text that represents a date in an Excel date format, or a reference to a cell that contains text that represents a date in an Excel date format.)=DATEVALUE(date_text)
• date_text (required): Text that represents a date in an Excel date format, or a reference to a cell that contains text that represents a date in an Excel date format.
111DAVERAGEDatabaseAverages the values in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify=DAVERAGE(databasedatabase [required]: A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields., fieldfield [required]: Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on., criteriacriteria [required]: You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column.)=DAVERAGE(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields.
• field (required): Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on.
• criteria (required): You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column.
112DAYDate and TimeReturns the day of a date, represented by a serial number=DAY(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the day you are trying to find.)=DAY(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The date of the day you are trying to find.
113DAYSDate and TimeReturns the number of days between two dates=DAYS(end_dateend_date [required]: From which date you want to know the number of days., start_datestart_date [required]: Until which date you want to know the number of days.)=DAYS(end_date, start_date)
• end_date (required): From which date you want to know the number of days.
• start_date (required): Until which date you want to know the number of days.
114DAYS360Date and TimeReturns the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year=DAYS360(start_datestart_date [required]: From which date you want to know the number of days.,end_dateend_date [required]: Until which date you want to know the number of days.,[methodmethod [optional]: A logical value that specifies whether to use the U.S. or European method in the calculation.])=DAYS360(start_date,end_date,[method])
• start_date (required): From which date you want to know the number of days.
• end_date (required): Until which date you want to know the number of days.
• method (optional): A logical value that specifies whether to use the U.S. or European method in the calculation.
115DBFinancialReturns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method=DB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., periodperiod [required]: The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [monthmonth [optional]: The number of months in the first year.])=DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month])
• cost (required): The initial cost of the asset.
• salvage (required): The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
• life (required): The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
• period (required): The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.
• month (optional): The number of months in the first year.
116DBCSTextConverts half-width (single-byte) letters within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters=DBCS(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)=DBCS(text)
• text (required): The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.
117DCOUNTDatabaseCounts the cells that contain numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DCOUNT(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DCOUNT(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
118DCOUNTADatabaseCounts the nonblank cells in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DCOUNTA(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DCOUNTA(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
119DDBFinancialReturns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify=DDB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., periodperiod [required]: The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [factorfactor [optional]: The rate at which the balance declines.])=DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor])
• cost (required): The initial cost of the asset.
• salvage (required): The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
• life (required): The number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
• period (required): The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.
• factor (optional): The rate at which the balance declines.
120DEC2BINEngineeringConverts a decimal number to binary=DEC2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=DEC2BIN(number, [places])
• number (required): The decimal integer you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
121DEC2HEXEngineeringConverts a decimal number to hexadecimal=DEC2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=DEC2HEX(number, [places])
• number (required): The decimal integer you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
122DEC2OCTEngineeringConverts a decimal number to octal=DEC2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The decimal integer you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=DEC2OCT(number, [places])
• number (required): The decimal integer you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
123DECIMALMath and TrigonometryConverts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number=DECIMAL(texttext [required]: Text representation of a number., radixradix [required]: Radix must be an integer.)=DECIMAL(text, radix)
• text (required): Text representation of a number.
124DEGREESMath and TrigonometryConverts radians into degrees=DEGREES(angleangle [required]: The angle in radians that you want to convert.)=DEGREES(angle)
• angle (required): The angle in radians that you want to convert.
125DELTAEngineeringTests whether two values are equal=DELTA(number1number1 [required]: The first number., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers])=DELTA(number1, [number2])
• number1 (required): The first number.
126DEVSQStatisticalReturns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean=DEVSQ(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate the sum of squared deviations, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers], ...)=DEVSQ(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want to calculate the sum of squared deviations
127DGETDatabaseExtracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify=DGET(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DGET(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
128DISCFinancialReturns the discount rate for a security=DISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., prpr [required]: The security's price per \$100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=DISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• pr (required): The security's price per \$100 face value.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
129DMAXDatabaseReturns the largest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions you that specify=DMAX(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DMAX(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
130DMINDatabaseReturns the smallest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions that you specify=DMIN(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DMIN(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
131DOLLARTextConverts a number to text using currency format, with the decimals rounded to the number of places specified=DOLLAR(numbernumber [required]: A number, a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number., [decimalsdecimals [optional]: The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.])=DOLLAR(number, [decimals])
• number (required): A number, a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula that evaluates to a number.
• decimals (optional): The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
132DOLLARDEFinancialConverts a dollar price expressed as an integer part and a fraction part, such as 1=DOLLARDE(fractional_dollarfractional_dollar [required]: A number expressed as an integer part and a fraction part, separated by a decimal symbol., fractionfraction [required]: The integer to use in the denominator of the fraction.)=DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction)
• fractional_dollar (required): A number expressed as an integer part and a fraction part, separated by a decimal symbol.
• fraction (required): The integer to use in the denominator of the fraction.
133DOLLARFRFinancialConverts decimal numbers to fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices=DOLLARFR(decimal_dollardecimal_dollar [required]: A decimal number., fractionfraction [required]: The integer to use in the denominator of a fraction.)=DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction)
• decimal_dollar (required): A decimal number.
• fraction (required): The integer to use in the denominator of a fraction.
134DPRODUCTDatabaseMultiplies the values in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DPRODUCT(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DPRODUCT(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
135DSTDEVDatabaseEstimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DSTDEV(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DSTDEV(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
136DSTDEVPDatabaseCalculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DSTDEVP(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DSTDEVP(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
137DSUMDatabaseAdds the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DSUM(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: Is the range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DSUM(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): Is the range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
138DURATIONFinancialReturns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value of \$100. =DURATION(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., couponcoupon [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=DURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• coupon (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
139DVARDatabaseEstimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DVAR(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DVAR(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
140DVARPDatabaseCalculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify=DVARP(databasedatabase [required]: The range of cells that makes up the list or database., fieldfield [required]: Indicates which column is used in the function., criteriacriteria [required]: The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.)=DVARP(database, field, criteria)
• database (required): The range of cells that makes up the list or database.
• field (required): Indicates which column is used in the function.
• criteria (required): The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify.
141EDATEDate and TimeReturns the serial number that represents the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a specified date (the start_date)=EDATE(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., monthsmonths [required]: The number of months before or after start_date.)=EDATE(start_date, months)
• start_date (required): A date that represents the start date.
• months (required): The number of months before or after start_date.
142EFFECTFinancialReturns the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year=EFFECT(nominal_ratenominal_rate [required]: The nominal interest rate., nperynpery [required]: The number of compounding periods per year.)=EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery)
• nominal_rate (required): The nominal interest rate.
• npery (required): The number of compounding periods per year.
143ENCODEURLWebReturns an URL-encoded string, replacing certain non-alphanumeric characters with the percentage symbol (%) and a hexadecimal number=ENCODEURL(texttext [required]: A string to be URL encoded)=ENCODEURL(text)
• text (required): A string to be URL encoded
144EOMONTHDate and TimeReturns the serial number for the last day of the month that is the indicated number of months before or after start_date=EOMONTH(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the starting date., monthsmonths [required]: The number of months before or after start_date.)=EOMONTH(start_date, months)
• start_date (required): A date that represents the starting date.
• months (required): The number of months before or after start_date.
145ERFEngineeringReturns the error function integrated between lower_limit and upper_limit=ERF(lower_limitlower_limit [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERF., [upper_limitupper_limit [optional]: The upper bound for integrating ERF.])=ERF(lower_limit, [upper_limit])
• lower_limit (required): The lower bound for integrating ERF.
• upper_limit (optional): The upper bound for integrating ERF.
146ERF.PRECISEEngineeringReturns the error function=ERF.PRECISE(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERF.)=ERF.PRECISE(x)
• x (required): The lower bound for integrating ERF.
147ERFCEngineeringReturns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity=ERFC(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERFC.)=ERFC(x)
• x (required): The lower bound for integrating ERFC.
148ERFC.PRECISEEngineeringReturns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity=ERFC.PRECISE(xx [required]: The lower bound for integrating ERFC.)=ERFC.PRECISE(x)
• x (required): The lower bound for integrating ERFC.
149ERROR.TYPEIS Functions and InformationReturns a number corresponding to one of the error values in Microsoft Excel or returns the #N/A error if no error exists=ERROR.TYPE(error_valerror_val [required]: The error value whose identifying number you want to find.)=ERROR.TYPE(error_val)
• error_val (required): The error value whose identifying number you want to find.
150EUROCONVERTAdd-in and AutomationConverts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation)=EUROCONVERT(numbernumber [required]: The currency value you want to convert, or a reference to a cell containing the value., sourcesource [required]: A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the ISO code for the source currency., targettarget [required]: A three-letter string, or cell reference, corresponding to the ISO code of the currency to which you want to convert the number., full_precisionfull_precision [required]: A logical value (TRUE or FALSE), or an expression that evaluates to a value of TRUE or FALSE, that specifies how to display the result., triangulation_precisiontriangulation_precision [required]: An integer equal to or greater than 3 that specifies the number of significant digits to be used for the intermediate euro value when converting between two euro member currencies.)=EUROCONVERT(number, source, target, full_precision, triangulation_precision)
• number (required): The currency value you want to convert, or a reference to a cell containing the value.
• source (required): A three-letter string, or reference to a cell containing the string, corresponding to the ISO code for the source currency.
• target (required): A three-letter string, or cell reference, corresponding to the ISO code of the currency to which you want to convert the number.
• full_precision (required): A logical value (TRUE or FALSE), or an expression that evaluates to a value of TRUE or FALSE, that specifies how to display the result.
• triangulation_precision (required): An integer equal to or greater than 3 that specifies the number of significant digits to be used for the intermediate euro value when converting between two euro member currencies.
151EVENMath and TrigonometryReturns number rounded up to the nearest even integer=EVEN(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)=EVEN(number)
• number (required): The value to round.
152EXACTTextCompares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are exactly the same, FALSE otherwise=EXACT(text1text1 [required]: The first text string., text2text2 [required]: The second text string.)=EXACT(text1, text2)
• text1 (required): The first text string.
• text2 (required): The second text string.
153EXPMath and TrigonometryReturns e raised to the power of number=EXP(numbernumber [required]: The exponent applied to the base e.)=EXP(number)
• number (required): The exponent applied to the base e.
154EXPON.DISTStatisticalReturns the exponential distribution=EXPON.DIST(xx [required]: The value of the function., lambdalambda [required]: The parameter value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.)=EXPON.DIST(x, lambda, cumulative)
• x (required): The value of the function.
• lambda (required): The parameter value.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.
155EXPONDISTCompatibilityReturns the exponential distribution=EXPONDIST(xx [required]: The value of the function., lambdalambda [required]: The parameter value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.)=EXPONDIST(x, lambda, cumulative)
• x (required): The value of the function.
• lambda (required): The parameter value.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.
156F.DISTStatisticalReturns the F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets=F.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=F.DIST(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
157F.DIST.RTStatisticalReturns the (right-tailed) F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets=F.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)=F.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
158F.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the F probability distribution=F.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)=F.INV(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
159F.INV.RTStatisticalReturns the inverse of the (right-tailed) F probability distribution=F.INV.RT(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)=F.INV.RT(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
160F.TESTStatisticalReturns the result of an F-test, the two-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different=F.TEST(array1array1 [required]: The first array or range of data., array2array2 [required]: The second array or range of data.)=F.TEST(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first array or range of data.
• array2 (required): The second array or range of data.
161FACTMath and TrigonometryReturns the factorial of a number=FACT(numbernumber [required]: The nonnegative number for which you want the factorial.)=FACT(number)
• number (required): The nonnegative number for which you want the factorial.
162FACTDOUBLEMath and TrigonometryReturns the double factorial of a number=FACTDOUBLE(numbernumber [required]: The value for which to return the double factorial.)=FACTDOUBLE(number)
• number (required): The value for which to return the double factorial.
163FALSELogicalReturns the logical value FALSE=FALSE()=FALSE()
164FDISTCompatibilityReturns the F probability distribution (degree of diversity) for two data sets=FDIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)=FDIST(x, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
165FILTERLookup and ReferenceFilters a range of data based on criteria you define=FILTER (arrayarray [required]: Range to filter, includeinclude [required]: Filter criteria, [if_emptyif_empty [optional]: Return value if no results])=FILTER (array, include, [if_empty])
• array (required): Range to filter
• include (required): Filter criteria
166FILTERXMLWebReturns specific data from XML content by using the specified xpath=FILTERXML(xmlxml [required]: A string in valid XML format, xpathxpath [required]: A string in standard XPath format)=FILTERXML(xml, xpath)
• xml (required): A string in valid XML format
• xpath (required): A string in standard XPath format
167FINDTextLocates one text string within a second text string and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=FIND(find_textfind_text [required]: Text to find (needle)., within_textwithin_text [required]: Text to find in (haystack)., [start_numstart_num [optional]: Character at which to start search.])=FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
• find_text (required): Text to find (needle).
• within_text (required): Text to find in (haystack).
• start_num (optional): Character at which to start search.
168FINDBTextLocates one text string within a second text string and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=FIND(find_textfind_text [required]: Text to find (needle)., within_textwithin_text [required]: Text to find in (haystack)., [start_numstart_num [optional]: Character at which to start search.])=FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
• find_text (required): Text to find (needle).
• within_text (required): Text to find in (haystack).
• start_num (optional): Character at which to start search.
169FINVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the (right-tailed) F probability distribution=FINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution., deg_freedom1deg_freedom1 [required]: The numerator degrees of freedom., deg_freedom2deg_freedom2 [required]: The denominator degrees of freedom.)=FINV(probability, deg_freedom1, deg_freedom2)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the F cumulative distribution.
• deg_freedom1 (required): The numerator degrees of freedom.
• deg_freedom2 (required): The denominator degrees of freedom.
170FISHERStatisticalReturns the Fisher transformation at x=FISHER(xx [required]: A numeric value for which you want the transformation.)=FISHER(x)
• x (required): A numeric value for which you want the transformation.
171FISHERINVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the Fisher transformation=FISHERINV(yy [required]: The value for which you want to perform the inverse of the transformation.)=FISHERINV(y)
• y (required): The value for which you want to perform the inverse of the transformation.
172FIXEDTextRounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text=FIXED(numbernumber [required]: The number you want to round and convert to text., [decimalsdecimals [optional]: The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.], [no_commasno_commas [optional]: A logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text.])=FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas])
• number (required): The number you want to round and convert to text.
• decimals (optional): The number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
• no_commas (optional): A logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text.
173FLOORCompatibilityRounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance=FLOOR(numbernumber [required]: The numeric value you want to round., significancesignificance [required]: The multiple to which you want to round.)=FLOOR(number, significance)
• number (required): The numeric value you want to round.
• significance (required): The multiple to which you want to round.
174FLOOR.MATHMath and TrigonometryRound a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=FLOOR.MATH(numbernumber [required]: The number to be rounded down., significancesignificance [required]: The multiple to which you want to round., modemode [required]: The direction (toward or away from 0) to round negative numbers.)=FLOOR.MATH(number, significance, mode)
• number (required): The number to be rounded down.
• significance (required): The multiple to which you want to round.
• mode (required): The direction (toward or away from 0) to round negative numbers.
175FLOOR.PRECISEMath and TrigonometryReturns a number that is rounded down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=FLOOR.PRECISE(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The multiple to which number is to be rounded.
176FORECASTStatisticalCalculate, or predict, a future value by using existing values=FORECAST(xx [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent array or range of data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent array or range of data.)=FORECAST(x, known_y's, known_x's)
• x (required): The data point for which you want to predict a value.
• known_y's (required): The dependent array or range of data.
• known_x's (required): The independent array or range of data.
177FORECAST.ETSStatisticalCalculates or predicts a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm=FORECAST.ETS(target_datetarget_date [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])=FORECAST.ETS(target_date, values, timeline, [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation])
• target_date (required): The data point for which you want to predict a value.
• values (required): Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points.
• timeline (required): The independent array or range of numeric data.
• seasonality (optional): Numeric value indicating seasonality.
• data_completion (optional): Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.
• aggregation (optional): Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp
178FORECAST.ETS.CONFINTStatisticalReturns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date. =FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_datetarget_date [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [confidence_levelconfidence_level [optional]: A numerical value between 0 and 1 (exclusive), indicating a confidence level for the calculated confidence interval.], [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])=FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_date, values, timeline, [confidence_level], [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation])
• target_date (required): The data point for which you want to predict a value.
• values (required): Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points.
• timeline (required): The independent array or range of numeric data.
• seasonality (optional): Numeric value indicating seasonality.
• data_completion (optional): Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.
• aggregation (optional): Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp
• confidence_level (optional): A numerical value between 0 and 1 (exclusive), indicating a confidence level for the calculated confidence interval.
179FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITYStatisticalReturns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series=FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY(valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])=FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY(values, timeline, [data_completion], [aggregation])
• values (required): Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points.
• timeline (required): The independent array or range of numeric data.
• data_completion (optional): Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.
• aggregation (optional): Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp
180FORECAST.ETS.STATStatisticalReturns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting=FORECAST.ETS.STAT(valuesvalues [required]: Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points., timelinetimeline [required]: The independent array or range of numeric data. , statistic_typestatistic_type [required]: A numeric value between 1 and 8, indicating which statistic will be returned for the calculated forecast., [seasonalityseasonality [optional]: Numeric value indicating seasonality.], [data_completiondata_completion [optional]: Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.], [aggregationaggregation [optional]: Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp])=FORECAST.ETS.STAT(values, timeline, statistic_type, [seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation])
• values (required): Values are the historical values, for which you want to forecast the next points.
• timeline (required): The independent array or range of numeric data.
• statistic_type (required): A numeric value between 1 and 8, indicating which statistic will be returned for the calculated forecast.
• seasonality (optional): Numeric value indicating seasonality.
• data_completion (optional): Numeric value indicating algorithm to account for for missing points.
• aggregation (optional): Numeric value indicating which method will be used to aggregate several values with the same time stamp
181FORECAST.LINEARStatisticalReturns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting=FORECAST.LINEAR(xx [required]: The data point for which you want to predict a value., known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent array or range of data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent array or range of data.)=FORECAST.LINEAR(x, known_y's, known_x's)
• x (required): The data point for which you want to predict a value.
• known_y's (required): The dependent array or range of data.
• known_x's (required): The independent array or range of data.
182FORMULATEXTLookup and ReferenceReturns a formula as a string=FORMULATEXT(referencereference [required]: A reference to a cell or range of cells.)=FORMULATEXT(reference)
• reference (required): A reference to a cell or range of cells.
183FREQUENCYStatisticalCalculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers=FREQUENCY(data_arraydata_array [required]: An array of or reference to a set of values for which you want to count frequencies., bins_arraybins_array [required]: An array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values in data_array.)=FREQUENCY(data_array, bins_array)
• data_array (required): An array of or reference to a set of values for which you want to count frequencies.
• bins_array (required): An array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values in data_array.
184FTESTCompatibilityReturns the result of an F-test, the two-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different=FTEST(array1array1 [required]: The first array or range of data., array2array2 [required]: The second array or range of data.)=FTEST(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first array or range of data.
• array2 (required): The second array or range of data.
185FVFinancialCalculates the future value of an investment based on a constant interest rate. =FV(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity., [pvpv [optional]: The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=FV(rate, nper, pmt, [pv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate per period.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods in an annuity.
• pmt (required): The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity.
• pv (optional): The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
186FVSCHEDULEFinancialReturns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates=FVSCHEDULE(principalprincipal [required]: The present value., scheduleschedule [required]: An array of interest rates to apply.)=FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule)
• principal (required): The present value.
• schedule (required): An array of interest rates to apply.
187GAMMAStatisticalReturn the gamma function value=GAMMA(numbernumber [required]: Returns a number.)=GAMMA(number)
• number (required): Returns a number.
188GAMMA.DISTStatisticalReturns the gamma distribution=GAMMA.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=GAMMA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
189GAMMA.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution=GAMMA.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the gamma distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution.)=GAMMA.INV(probability, alpha, beta)
• probability (required): The probability associated with the gamma distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
190GAMMADISTCompatibilityReturns the gamma distribution=GAMMADIST(xx [required]: The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=GAMMADIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
191GAMMAINVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution=GAMMAINV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the gamma distribution., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution.)=GAMMAINV(probability, alpha, beta)
• probability (required): The probability associated with the gamma distribution.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
192GAMMALNStatisticalReturns the natural logarithm of the gamma function=GAMMALN(xx [required]: The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.)=GAMMALN(x)
• x (required): The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.
193GAMMALN.PRECISEStatisticalReturns the natural logarithm of the gamma function=GAMMALN.PRECISE(xx [required]: The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.)=GAMMALN.PRECISE(x)
• x (required): The value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN.
194GAUSSStatisticalCalculates the probability that a member of a standard normal population will fall between the mean and z standard deviations from the mean=GAUSS(zz [required]: Returns a number.)=GAUSS(z)
• z (required): Returns a number.
195GCDMath and TrigonometryReturns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers=GCD(number1number1 [required]: The first number from which to determine the greatest common divisor of two or more integer, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=GCD(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number from which to determine the greatest common divisor of two or more integer
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
196GEOMEANStatisticalReturns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data=GEOMEAN(number1number1 [required]: The first number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=GEOMEAN(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
197GESTEPEngineeringReturns 1 if number ? step; returns 0 (zero) otherwise=GESTEP(numbernumber [required]: The value to test against step., [stepstep [optional]: The threshold value.])=GESTEP(number, [step])
• number (required): The value to test against step.
• step (optional): The threshold value.
198GETPIVOTDATALookup and ReferenceReturns visible data from a PivotTable=GETPIVOTDATA(data_fielddata_field [required]: The name of the PivotTable field that contains the data that you want to retrieve., pivot_tablepivot_table [required]: A reference to any cell, range of cells, or named range of cells in a PivotTable., [field1, item1, field2, item2field1, item1, field2, item2 [optional]: Additional optional fields, items and references], ...)=GETPIVOTDATA(data_field, pivot_table, [field1, item1, field2, item2], ...)
• data_field (required): The name of the PivotTable field that contains the data that you want to retrieve.
• pivot_table (required): A reference to any cell, range of cells, or named range of cells in a PivotTable.
• field1, item1, field2, item2 (optional): Additional optional fields, items and references
199GROWTHStatisticalCalculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data=GROWTH(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.], [new_x'snew_x's [optional]: Are new x-values for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding y-values.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.])=GROWTH(known_y's, [known_x's], [new_x's], [const])
• known_y's (required): The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.
• known_x's (optional): An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.
• new_x's (optional): Are new x-values for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding y-values.
• const (optional): A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.
200HARMEANStatisticalReturns the harmonic mean of a data set=HARMEAN(number1number1 [required]: Number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean. , [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional number arguments. ], ...)=HARMEAN(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number arguments for which you want to calculate the mean.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional number arguments.
201HEX2BINEngineeringConverts a hexadecimal number to binary=HEX2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=HEX2BIN(number, [places])
• number (required): The hexadecimal number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
202HEX2DECEngineeringConverts a hexadecimal number to decimal=HEX2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert.)=HEX2DEC(number)
• number (required): The hexadecimal number you want to convert.
203HEX2OCTEngineeringConverts a hexadecimal number to octal=HEX2OCT(numbernumber [required]: The hexadecimal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=HEX2OCT(number, [places])
• number (required): The hexadecimal number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
204HLOOKUPLookup and ReferenceSearches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array=HLOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to be found in the first row of the table., table_arraytable_array [required]: A table of information in which data is looked up., row_index_numrow_index_num [required]: The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned., [range_lookuprange_lookup [optional]: A logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match.])=HLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, [range_lookup])
• lookup_value (required): The value to be found in the first row of the table.
• table_array (required): A table of information in which data is looked up.
• row_index_num (required): The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned.
• range_lookup (optional): A logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match.
205HOURDate and TimeReturns the hour of a time value=HOUR(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the hour you want to find.)=HOUR(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The time that contains the hour you want to find.
206HYPERLINKLookup and ReferenceCreates a shortcut that jumps to another location in the current workbook or to an address=HYPERLINK(link_locationlink_location [required]: The path and file name to the document to be opened., [friendly_namefriendly_name [optional]: The jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell.])=HYPERLINK(link_location, [friendly_name])
• link_location (required): The path and file name to the document to be opened.
• friendly_name (optional): The jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell.
207HYPGEOM.DISTStatisticalReturns the hypergeometric distribution/ probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size. =HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_ssample_s [required]: The number of successes in the sample., number_samplenumber_sample [required]: The size of the sample., population_spopulation_s [required]: The number of successes in the population., number_popnumber_pop [required]: The population size., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_pop, cumulative)
• sample_s (required): The number of successes in the sample.
• number_sample (required): The size of the sample.
• population_s (required): The number of successes in the population.
• number_pop (required): The population size.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
208HYPGEOMDISTCompatibilityReturns the hypergeometric distribution/ probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size. =HYPGEOMDIST(sample_ssample_s [required]: The number of successes in the sample., number_samplenumber_sample [required]: The size of the sample., population_spopulation_s [required]: The number of successes in the population., number_popnumber_pop [required]: The population size.)=HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_pop)
• sample_s (required): The number of successes in the sample.
• number_sample (required): The size of the sample.
• population_s (required): The number of successes in the population.
• number_pop (required): The population size.
209IFLogicalMake logical comparisons between a value and what you expect=IF(logical_testlogical_test [required]: Logical test/ condition.,[value_if_truevalue_if_true [optional]: Value if condition is met.], [value_if_falsevalue_if_false [optional]: Value if condition is not met.]=IF(logical_test,[value_if_true], [value_if_false]
• logical_test (required): Logical test/ condition.
• value_if_true (optional): Value if condition is met.
• value_if_false (optional): Value if condition is not met.
210IFERRORLogicalReturns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, it returns the result of the formula=IFERROR(valuevalue [required]: The argument that is checked for an error., value_if_errorvalue_if_error [required]: The value to return if the formula evaluates to an error.)=IFERROR(value, value_if_error)
• value_if_error (required): The value to return if the formula evaluates to an error.
• value (required): The argument that is checked for an error.
211IFNALogicalReturns the value specified if a formula returns the #N/A error value; otherwise it returns the result of the formula=IFNA(valuevalue [required]: The argument that is checked for the #N/A error value., value_if_navalue_if_na [required]: The value to return if the formula evaluates to the #N/A error value.)=IFNA(value, value_if_na)
• value (required): The argument that is checked for the #N/A error value.
• value_if_na (required): The value to return if the formula evaluates to the #N/A error value.
212IFSLogicalChecks whether one or more conditions are met, and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition==ifs(logical_test1logical_test1 [required]: Logical test/ condition., value_if_true1value_if_true1 [required]: Value if condition is met., [logical_test2, value_if_true2logical_test2, value_if_true2 [optional]: Additioanl logical tests and values if condition is met])==ifs(logical_test1, value_if_true1, [logical_test2, value_if_true2])
• logical_test1 (required): Logical test/ condition.
• value_if_true1 (required): Value if condition is met.
• logical_test2, value_if_true2 (optional): Additioanl logical tests and values if condition is met
213IMABSEngineeringReturns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMABS(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the absolute value.)=IMABS(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the absolute value.
214IMAGINARYEngineeringReturns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMAGINARY(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the imaginary coefficient.)=IMAGINARY(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the imaginary coefficient.
215IMARGUMENTEngineeringReturns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMARGUMENT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the argument.)=IMARGUMENT(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the argument.
216IMCONJUGATEEngineeringReturns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMCONJUGATE(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the conjugate.)=IMCONJUGATE(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the conjugate.
217IMCOSEngineeringReturns the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMCOS(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cosine.)=IMCOS(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the cosine.
218IMCOSHEngineeringReturns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMCOSH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosine.)=IMCOSH(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosine.
219IMCOTEngineeringReturns the cotangent of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMCOT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cotangent.)=IMCOT(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the cotangent.
220IMCSCEngineeringReturns the cosecant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMCSC(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the cosecant.)=IMCSC(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the cosecant.
221IMCSCHEngineeringReturns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMCSCH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosecant.)=IMCSCH(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic cosecant.
222IMDIVEngineeringReturns the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMDIV(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex numerator or dividend., inumber2inumber2 [required]: The complex denominator or divisor.)=IMDIV(inumber1, inumber2)
• inumber1 (required): The complex numerator or dividend.
• inumber2 (required): The complex denominator or divisor.
223IMEXPEngineeringReturns the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMEXP(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the exponential.)=IMEXP(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the exponential.
224IMLNEngineeringReturns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMLN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the natural logarithm.)=IMLN(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the natural logarithm.
225IMLOG10EngineeringReturns the common logarithm (base 10) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMLOG10(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the common logarithm.)=IMLOG10(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the common logarithm.
226IMLOG2EngineeringReturns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMLOG2(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the base-2 logarithm.)=IMLOG2(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the base-2 logarithm.
227IMPOWEREngineeringReturns a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format raised to a power=IMPOWER(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number you want to raise to a power., numbernumber [required]: The power to which you want to raise the complex number.)=IMPOWER(inumber, number)
• inumber (required): A complex number you want to raise to a power.
• number (required): The power to which you want to raise the complex number.
228IMPRODUCTEngineeringReturns the product of 1 to 255 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMPRODUCT(inumber1inumber1 [optional]: Additional complex numbers, [inumber2inumber2 [required]: A complex number to use improduct function on], ...)=IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)
• inumber2 (required): A complex number to use improduct function on
• inumber1 (optional): Additional complex numbers
229IMREALEngineeringReturns the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMREAL(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the real coefficient.)=IMREAL(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the real coefficient.
230IMSECEngineeringReturns the secant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMSEC(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the secant.)=IMSEC(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the secant.
231IMSECHEngineeringReturns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMSECH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic secant.)=IMSECH(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic secant.
232IMSINEngineeringReturns the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMSIN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the sine.)=IMSIN(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the sine.
233IMSINHEngineeringFunction returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMSINH(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic sine.)=IMSINH(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the hyperbolic sine.
234IMSQRTEngineeringReturns the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMSQRT(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the square root.)=IMSQRT(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the square root.
235IMSUBEngineeringReturns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMSUB(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex number from which to subtract inumber2., inumber2inumber2 [required]: The complex number to subtract from inumber1.)=IMSUB(inumber1, inumber2)
• inumber1 (required): The complex number from which to subtract inumber2.
• inumber2 (required): The complex number to subtract from inumber1.
236IMSUMEngineeringReturns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format=IMSUM(inumber1inumber1 [required]: The complex number you want to add., [inumber2inumber2 [optional]: Additional optional complex numbers.], ...)=IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)
• inumber1 (required): The complex number you want to add.
• inumber2 (optional): Additional optional complex numbers.
237IMTANEngineeringReturns the tangent of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format=IMTAN(inumberinumber [required]: A complex number for which you want the tangent.)=IMTAN(inumber)
• inumber (required): A complex number for which you want the tangent.
238INDEXLookup and ReferenceReturns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range=INDEX(arrayarray [required]: A range of cells or an array constant., row_numrow_num [required]: Selects the row in array from which to return a value. Optional if column_num is provided. , [column_numcolumn_num [optional]: Selects the column in array from which to return a value. ])=INDEX(array, row_num, [column_num])
• array (required): A range of cells or an array constant.
• row_num (required): Selects the row in array from which to return a value. Optional if column_num is provided.
• column_num (optional): Selects the column in array from which to return a value.
239INDIRECTLookup and ReferenceReturns the reference specified by a text string=INDIRECT(ref_textref_text [required]: A reference to a cell that contains an A1-style reference, an R1C1-style reference, a name defined as a reference, or a reference to a cell as a text string., [a1a1 [optional]: A logical value that specifies what type of reference is contained in the cell ref_text.])=INDIRECT(ref_text, [a1])
• ref_text (required): A reference to a cell that contains an A1-style reference, an R1C1-style reference, a name defined as a reference, or a reference to a cell as a text string.
• a1 (optional): A logical value that specifies what type of reference is contained in the cell ref_text.
240INFOIS Functions and InformationReturns information about the current operating environment=INFO(type_texttype_text [required]: Text that specifies what type of information you want returned.)=INFO(type_text)
• type_text (required): Text that specifies what type of information you want returned.
241INTMath and TrigonometryRounds a number down to the nearest integer=INT(numbernumber [required]: The real number you want to round down to an integer.)=INT(number)
• number (required): The real number you want to round down to an integer.
242INTERCEPTStatisticalCalculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values=INTERCEPT(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The dependent set of observations or data., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The independent set of observations or data.)=INTERCEPT(known_y's, known_x's)
• known_y's (required): The dependent set of observations or data.
• known_x's (required): The independent set of observations or data.
243INTRATEFinancialReturns the interest rate for a fully invested security=INTRATE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., investmentinvestment [required]: The amount invested in the security., redemptionredemption [required]: The amount to be received at maturity., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=INTRATE(settlement, maturity, investment, redemption, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• investment (required): The amount invested in the security.
• redemption (required): The amount to be received at maturity.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
244IPMTFinancialReturns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate=IPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., perper [required]: The period for which you want to find the interest and must be in the range 1 to nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate per period.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods in an annuity.
• per (required): The period for which you want to find the interest and must be in the range 1 to nper.
• pv (required): The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
245IRRFinancialReturns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by the numbers in values=IRR(valuesvalues [required]: An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to calculate the internal rate of return., [guessguess [optional]: A number that you guess is close to the result of IRR.])=IRR(values, [guess])
• values (required): An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to calculate the internal rate of return.
• guess (optional): A number that you guess is close to the result of IRR.
246ISBLANKIS Functions and InformationChecks if value refers to empty cell=ISBLANK(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISBLANK(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
247ISERRIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is any error value ((#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!)=ISERR(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISERR(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
248ISERRORIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is any error value ((#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!)=ISERROR(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISERROR(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
249ISEVENIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is an even number=ISEVEN(numbernumber [required]: The value to test.)=ISEVEN(number)
• number (required): The value to test.
250ISFORMULAIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a formula=ISFORMULA(referencereference [required]: Reference is a reference to the cell you want to test.)=ISFORMULA(reference)
• reference (required): Reference is a reference to the cell you want to test.
251ISLOGICALIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a logical value=ISLOGICAL(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested. )=ISLOGICAL(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
252ISNAIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is #N/A (value not available)=ISNA(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested. )=ISNA(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
253ISNONTEXTIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a non-text vlue=ISNONTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISNONTEXT(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
254ISNUMBERIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a number=ISNUMBER(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISNUMBER(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
255ISO.CEILINGMath and TrigonometryReturns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance=ISO.CEILING(numbernumber [required]: The value to be rounded., [significancesignificance [optional]: The optional multiple to which number is to be rounded.])=ISO.CEILING(number, [significance])
• number (required): The value to be rounded.
• significance (optional): The optional multiple to which number is to be rounded.
256ISODDIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is an odd number=ISODD(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISODD(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
257ISOWEEKNUMDate and TimeReturns number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date=ISOWEEKNUM(datedate [required]: Date is the date-time code used by Excel for date and time calculation.)=ISOWEEKNUM(date)
• date (required): Date is the date-time code used by Excel for date and time calculation.
258ISPMTFinancialCalculates the interest paid (or received) for the specified period of a loan (or investment) with even principal payments=ISPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate for the investment., perper [required]: The period for which you want to find the interest, and must be between 1 and Nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods for the investment., pvpv [required]: The present value of the investment. For a loan, Pv is the loan amount.)=ISPMT(rate, per, nper, pv)
• rate (required): The interest rate for the investment.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods for the investment.
• per (required): The period for which you want to find the interest, and must be between 1 and Nper.
• pv (required): The present value of the investment. For a loan, Pv is the loan amount.
259ISREFIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a reference=ISREF(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISREF(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
260ISTEXTIS Functions and InformationChecks if value is a text=ISTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value that you want tested.)=ISTEXT(value)
• value (required): The value that you want tested.
261JISTextConverts half-width (single-byte) letters within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters=JIS(texttext [required]: The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.)=JIS(text)
• text (required): The text or a reference to a cell that contains the text you want to change.
262KURTStatisticalReturns the kurtosis of a data set=KURT(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate kurtosis., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=KURT(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want to calculate kurtosis.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
263LARGEStatisticalReturns the k-th largest value in a data set=LARGE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data for which you want to determine the k-th largest value., kk [required]: The position (from the largest) in the array or cell range of data to return.)=LARGE(array, k)
• array (required): The array or range of data for which you want to determine the k-th largest value.
• k (required): The position (from the largest) in the array or cell range of data to return.
264LCMMath and TrigonometryReturns the least common multiple of integers=LCM(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want the least common multiple. , [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=LCM(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want the least common multiple.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
265LEFTTextReturns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=LEFT(texttext [required]: The text string that contains the characters you want to extract., [num_charsnum_chars [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want LEFT to extract.])=LEFT(text, [num_chars])
• text (required): The text string that contains the characters you want to extract.
• num_chars (optional): Specifies the number of characters you want LEFT to extract.
266LEFTBTextReturns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=LEFTB(texttext [required]: The text string that contains the characters you want to extract., [num_bytesnum_bytes [optional]: Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want LEFTB to extract.])=LEFTB(text, [num_bytes])
• text (required): The text string that contains the characters you want to extract.
• num_bytes (optional): Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want LEFTB to extract.
267LENTextReturns the number of characters in a text string. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=LEN(texttext [required]: The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.)=LEN(text)
• text (required): The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.
268LENBTextReturns the number of characters in a text string. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=LENB(texttext [required]: The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.)=LENB(text)
• text (required): The text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.
269LETMath and TrigonometryAssigns names to calculation results to allows storing intermediate calculations, values, or defining names inside a formula=LET(namename [required]: Name to assign, name_valuename_value [required]: Value calculation to assign to value, calculationcalculation [required]: Calculation for assigned names/ values)=LET(name, name_value, calculation)
• name (required): Name to assign
• name_value (required): Value calculation to assign to value
• calculation (required): Calculation for assigned names/ values
270LINESTStatisticalCalculate the statistics for other types of models that are linear in the unknown parameters, including polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and power series=LINEST(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The et of y-values that you already know in the relationship y = mx + b., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: A set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0.], [statsstats [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.])=LINEST(known_y's, [known_x's], [const], [stats])
• known_y's (required): The et of y-values that you already know in the relationship y = mx + b.
• known_x's (optional): A set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b.
• const (optional): A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0.
• stats (optional): A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.
271LNMath and TrigonometryReturns the natural logarithm of a number=LN(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.)=LN(number)
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.
272LOGMath and TrigonometryReturns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify=LOG(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the logarithm., [basebase [optional]: The base of the logarithm.])=LOG(number, [base])
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the logarithm.
• base (optional): The base of the logarithm.
273LOG10Math and TrigonometryReturns the base-10 logarithm of a number=LOG10(numbernumber [required]: The positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm.)=LOG10(number)
• number (required): The positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm.
274LOGESTStatisticalCalculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve. =LOGEST(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x., [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.], [statsstats [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.])=LOGEST(known_y's, [known_x's], [const], [stats])
• known_y's (required): The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.
• known_x's (optional): An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.
• const (optional): A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.
• stats (optional): A logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics.
275LOGINVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev. =LOGINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the lognormal distribution., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)=LOGINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the lognormal distribution.
• mean (required): The mean of ln(x).
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of ln(x).
276LOGNORM.DISTStatisticalReturns the lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters Mean and Standard_dev=LOGNORM.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x)., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=LOGNORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• mean (required): The mean of ln(x).
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of ln(x).
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
277LOGNORM.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters Mean and Standard_dev=LOGNORM.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability associated with the lognormal distribution., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)=LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
• probability (required): A probability associated with the lognormal distribution.
• mean (required): The mean of ln(x).
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of ln(x).
278LOGNORMDISTCompatibilityReturns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev=LOGNORMDIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., meanmean [required]: The mean of ln(x)., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of ln(x).)=LOGNORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• mean (required): The mean of ln(x).
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of ln(x).
279LOOKUPLookup and ReferenceLooks in a one-row or one-column range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a value from the same position in a second one-row or one-column range=LOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: A value that LOOKUP searches for in the first vector., lookup_vectorlookup_vector [required]: A range that contains only one row or one column. , [result_vectorresult_vector [optional]: A range that contains only one row or column. ])=LOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_vector, [result_vector])
• lookup_value (required): A value that LOOKUP searches for in the first vector.
• lookup_vector (required): A range that contains only one row or one column.
• result_vector (optional): A range that contains only one row or column.
280LOWERTextConverts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase=LOWER(texttext [required]: The text you want to convert to lowercase.)=LOWER(text)
• text (required): The text you want to convert to lowercase.
281MATCHLookup and ReferenceSearches for a specified item in a range of cells, and then returns the relative position of that item in the range=MATCH(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value that you want to match in lookup_array., lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: The range of cells being searched., [match_typematch_type [optional]: The number -1, 0, or 1.])=MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_type])
• lookup_value (required): The value that you want to match in lookup_array.
• lookup_array (required): The range of cells being searched.
• match_type (optional): The number -1, 0, or 1.
282MAXStatisticalReturns the largest value in a set of values=MAX(number1number1 [required]: First numbers for which you want to find the maximum value., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers.], ...)=MAX(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): First numbers for which you want to find the maximum value.
283MAXAStatisticalReturns the largest value in a list of arguments=MAXA(value1value1 [optional]: Additional number arguments.value1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to find the largest value., [value2], ...)=MAXA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first number argument for which you want to find the largest value.
• value1 (optional): Additional number arguments.
284MAXIFSStatisticalReturns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria=MAXIFS(max_rangemax_range [required]: The actual range of cells in which the maximum will be determined., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as maximum., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional ranges/criterias], ...)=MAXIFS(max_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• max_range (required): The actual range of cells in which the maximum will be determined.
• criteria_range1 (required): Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria.
• criteria1 (required): Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as maximum.
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional optional ranges/criterias
285MDETERMMath and TrigonometryReturns the matrix determinant of an array=MDETERM(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)=MDETERM(array)
• array (required): A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.
286MDURATIONFinancialReturns the modified Macauley duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100=MDURATION(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., couponcoupon [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=MDURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• coupon (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
287MEDIANStatisticalReturns the median of the given numbers=MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...)=MEDIAN(number1, [number2], ...)
288MIDTextReturns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=MID(text, start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the first character you want to extract in text., num_charsnum_chars [required]: Specifies the number of characters you want MID to return from text.)=MID(text, start_num, num_chars)
• start_num (required): The position of the first character you want to extract in text.
• num_chars (required): Specifies the number of characters you want MID to return from text.
289MIDBTextReturns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=MIDB(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the first character you want to extract in text., num_bytesnum_bytes [required]: Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want MIDB to return from text.)=MIDB(text, start_num, num_bytes)
• start_num (required): The position of the first character you want to extract in text.
• num_bytes (required): Specifies the number of characters in bytes you want MIDB to return from text.
• text (required): The text string containing the characters you want to extract.
290MINStatisticalReturns the smallest number in a set of values=MIN(number1number1 [required]: First numbers for which you want to find the smallest value., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers.], ...)=MIN(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): First numbers for which you want to find the smallest value.
291MINAStatisticalReturns the smallest value in the list of arguments=MINA(value1value1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to find the smallest value., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional number arguments.], ...)=MINA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first number argument for which you want to find the smallest value.
• value2 (optional): Additional number arguments.
292MINIFSStatisticalReturns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria=MINIFS(min_rangemin_range [required]: The actual range of cells in which the smallest number will be determined., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [required]: Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria., criteria1criteria1 [required]: Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as minimum., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional ranges/criterias], ...)=MINIFS(min_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional optional ranges/criterias
• min_range (required): The actual range of cells in which the smallest number will be determined.
• criteria_range1 (required): Is the set of cells to evaluate with the criteria.
• criteria1 (required): Is the criteria in the form of a number, expression, or text that defines which cells will be evaluated as minimum.
293MINUTEDate and TimeReturns the minutes of a time value=MINUTE(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the minute you want to find.)=MINUTE(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The time that contains the minute you want to find.
294MINVERSEMath and TrigonometryReturns the inverse matrix for a matrix stored in an array=MINVERSE(arrayarray [required]: A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.)=MINVERSE(array)
• array (required): A numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns.
295MIRRFinancialReturns the modified internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows=MIRR(valuesvalues [required]: An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers., finance_ratefinance_rate [required]: The interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows., reinvest_ratereinvest_rate [required]: The interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them.)=MIRR(values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate)
• values (required): An array or a reference to cells that contain numbers.
• finance_rate (required): The interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows.
• reinvest_rate (required): The interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them.
296MMULTMath and TrigonometryReturns the matrix product of two arrays=MMULT(array1array1 [required]: The first arrays you want to multiply., array2array2 [required]: The second arrays you want to multiply.)=MMULT(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): The first arrays you want to multiply.
• array2 (required): The second arrays you want to multiply.
297MODMath and TrigonometryReturns the remainder after number is divided by divisor=MOD(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want to find the remainder., divisordivisor [required]: The number by which you want to divide number.)=MOD(number, divisor)
• number (required): The number for which you want to find the remainder.
• divisor (required): The number by which you want to divide number.
298MODECompatibilityReturns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data=MODE(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)=MODE(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode.
• number2 (optional): Additional numbers to calculate the mode.
299MODE.MULTStatisticalReturns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data=MODE.MULT((number1number1 [required]: The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)=MODE.MULT((number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument for which you want to calculate the mode.
• number2 (optional): Additional numbers to calculate the mode.
300MODE.SNGLStatisticalReturns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data=MODE.SNGL(number1number1 [required]: The first argument for which you want to calculate the mode., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to calculate the mode.], ...)=MODE.SNGL(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first argument for which you want to calculate the mode.
• number2 (optional): Additional numbers to calculate the mode.
301MONTHDate and TimeReturns the month of a date represented by a serial number=MONTH(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the month you are trying to find.)=MONTH(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The date of the month you are trying to find.
302MROUNDMath and TrigonometryReturns a number rounded to the desired multiple=MROUND(numbernumber [required]: The value to round., multiplemultiple [required]: The multiple to which you want to round number.)=MROUND(number, multiple)
• number (required): The value to round.
• multiple (required): The multiple to which you want to round number.
303MULTINOMIALMath and TrigonometryReturns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials=MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)=MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)
304MUNITMath and TrigonometryReturns the unit matrix for the specified dimension=MUNIT(dimensiondimension [required]: Dimension is an integer specifying the dimension of the unit matrix that you want to return. It returns an array. The dimension has to be greater than zero.)=MUNIT(dimension)
• dimension (required): Dimension is an integer specifying the dimension of the unit matrix that you want to return. It returns an array. The dimension has to be greater than zero.
305NIS Functions and InformationReturns a value converted to a number=N(valuevalue [required]: The value you want converted.)=N(value)
• value (required): The value you want converted.
306NAIS Functions and InformationReturns the error value #N/A=NA()=NA()
307NEGBINOM.DISTStatisticalReturns the negative binomial distribution, the probability that there will be Number_f failures before the Number_s-th success, with Probability_s probability of a success=NEGBINOM.DIST(number_fnumber_f [required]: The number of failures., number_snumber_s [required]: The threshold number of successes., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s, cumulative)
• number_f (required): The number of failures.
• number_s (required): The threshold number of successes.
• probability_s (required): The probability of a success.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
308NEGBINOMDISTCompatibilityReturns the negative binomial distribution=NEGBINOMDIST(number_fnumber_f [required]: The number of failures., number_snumber_s [required]: The threshold number of successes., probability_sprobability_s [required]: The probability of a success.)=NEGBINOMDIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s)
• number_f (required): The number of failures.
• number_s (required): The threshold number of successes.
• probability_s (required): The probability of a success.
309NETWORKDAYSDate and TimeReturns the number of whole working days between start_date and end_date=NETWORKDAYS(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the end date., [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.])=NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays])
• start_date (required): A date that represents the start date.
• end_date (required): A date that represents the end date.
• holidays (optional): An optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.
310NETWORKDAYS.INTLDate and TimeReturns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days=NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])=NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])
311NOMINALFinancialReturns the nominal annual interest rate, given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year=NOMINAL(effect_rateeffect_rate [required]: The effective interest rate., nperynpery [required]: The number of compounding periods per year.)=NOMINAL(effect_rate, npery)
• effect_rate (required): The effective interest rate.
• npery (required): The number of compounding periods per year.
312NORM.DISTStatisticalReturns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation=NORM.DIST(xx [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=NORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
• x (required): The value for which you want the distribution.
• mean (required): The arithmetic mean of the distribution.
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of the distribution.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
313NORM.INVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation=NORM.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)=NORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
• probability (required): A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.
• mean (required): The arithmetic mean of the distribution.
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of the distribution.
314NORM.S.DISTStatisticalReturns the standard normal distribution (has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one)=NORM.S.DIST(zz [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function.)=NORM.S.DIST(z, cumulative)
• z (required): The value for which you want the distribution.
• cumulative (required): Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function.
315NORM.S.INVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution=NORM.S.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.)=NORM.S.INV(probability)
• probability (required): A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.
316NORMDISTCompatibilityReturns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation=NORMDIST(xx [required]: The value for which you want the distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)=NORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
• x (required): The value for which you want the distribution.
• mean (required): The arithmetic mean of the distribution.
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of the distribution.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
317NORMINVStatisticalReturns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation=NORMINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)=NORMINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
• probability (required): A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.
• mean (required): The arithmetic mean of the distribution.
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of the distribution.
318NORMSDISTCompatibilityReturns the standard normal cumulative distribution function=NORMSDIST(zz [required]: The value for which you want the distribution.)=NORMSDIST(z)
• z (required): The value for which you want the distribution.
319NORMSINVCompatibilityReturns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution=NORMSINV(probabilityprobability [required]: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.)=NORMSINV(probability)
• probability (required): A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.
320NOTLogicalReturns the opposite of a logical value=NOT(logicallogical [required]: Logical expression to check for NOT condition)=NOT(logical)
• logical (required): Logical expression to check for NOT condition
321NOWDate and TimeReturns the serial number of the current date and time. =NOW()=NOW()
322NPERFinancialReturns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate=NPER(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=NPER(rate, pmt, pv, [fv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate per period.
• pmt (required): The payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity.
• pv (required): The present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
323NPVFinancialCalculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values)=NPV(raterate [required]: The rate of discount over the length of one period., value1value1 [required]: First arguments representing the payments and income., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional arguments representing the payments and income.], ...)=NPV(rate, value1, [value2], ...)
• rate (required): The rate of discount over the length of one period.
• value1 (required): First arguments representing the payments and income.
• value2 (optional): Additional arguments representing the payments and income.
324NUMBERVALUETextConverts text to a number, in a locale-independent way=NUMBERVALUE(texttext [required]: The text to convert to a number., [decimal_separatordecimal_separator [optional]: The character used to separate the integer and fractional part of the result.], [group_separatorgroup_separator [optional]: The character used to separate groupings of numbers, such as thousands from hundreds and millions from thousands. ])=NUMBERVALUE(text, [decimal_separator], [group_separator ])
• text (required): The text to convert to a number.
• decimal_separator (optional): The character used to separate the integer and fractional part of the result.
• group_separator (optional): The character used to separate groupings of numbers, such as thousands from hundreds and millions from thousands.
325OCT2BINEngineeringConverts an octal number to binary=OCT2BIN(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=OCT2BIN(number, [places])
• number (required): The octal number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
326OCT2DECEngineeringConverts an octal number to decimal=OCT2DEC(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert.)=OCT2DEC(number)
• number (required): The octal number you want to convert.
327OCT2HEXEngineeringConverts an octal number to hexadecimal=OCT2HEX(numbernumber [required]: The octal number you want to convert., [placesplaces [optional]: The number of characters to use.])=OCT2HEX(number, [places])
• number (required): The octal number you want to convert.
• places (optional): The number of characters to use.
328ODDMath and TrigonometryReturns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer=ODD(numbernumber [required]: The value to round.)=ODD(number)
• number (required): The value to round.
329ODDFPRICEFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period=ODDFPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_couponfirst_coupon [required]: The security's first coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=ODDFPRICE(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• issue (required): The security's issue date.
• first_coupon (required): The security's first coupon date.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
330ODDFYIELDFinancialReturns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period=ODDFYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date., first_couponfirst_coupon [required]: The security's first coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., prpr [required]: The security's price., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=ODDFYIELD(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• issue (required): The security's issue date.
• first_coupon (required): The security's first coupon date.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate.
• pr (required): The security's price.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
331ODDLPRICEFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period=ODDLPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., last_interestlast_interest [required]: The security's last coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=ODDLPRICE(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• last_interest (required): The security's last coupon date.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
332ODDLYIELDFinancialReturns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period=ODDLYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., last_interestlast_interest [required]: The security's last coupon date., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate

, prpr [required]: The security's price., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])
=ODDLYIELD(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• last_interest (required): The security's last coupon date.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate

• pr (required): The security's price.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
333OFFSETLookup and ReferenceReturns a reference to a range that is a specified number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells=OFFSET(referencereference [required]: The reference from which you want to base the offset., rowsrows [required]: The number of rows, up or down, that you want the upper-left cell to refer to., colscols [required]: The number of columns, to the left or right, that you want the upper-left cell of the result to refer to., [heightheight [optional]: The height, in number of rows, that you want the returned reference to be.], [widthwidth [optional]: The width, in number of columns, that you want the returned reference to be.])=OFFSET(reference, rows, cols, [height], [width])
• reference (required): The reference from which you want to base the offset.
• rows (required): The number of rows, up or down, that you want the upper-left cell to refer to.
• cols (required): The number of columns, to the left or right, that you want the upper-left cell of the result to refer to.
• height (optional): The height, in number of rows, that you want the returned reference to be.
• width (optional): The width, in number of columns, that you want the returned reference to be.
334ORLogicalCheck if if any conditions in a test are TRUE=OR(logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.])=OR(logical1, [logical2])
• logical1 (required): The first logical condition.
• logical2 (optional): Additional logical condition.
335PDURATIONFinancialReturns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value=PDURATION(raterate [required]: Rate is the interest rate per period., pvpv [required]: Pv is the present value of the investment., fvfv [required]: Fv is the desired future value of the investment.)=PDURATION(rate, pv, fv)
• rate (required): Rate is the interest rate per period.
• pv (required): Pv is the present value of the investment.
• fv (required): Fv is the desired future value of the investment.
336PEARSONStatisticalReturns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from -1=PEARSON(array1array1 [required]: A set of independent values., array2array2 [required]: A set of dependent values.)=PEARSON(array1, array2)
• array1 (required): A set of independent values.
• array2 (required): A set of dependent values.
337PERCENTILECompatibilityReturns the k-th percentile of values in a range=PERCENTILE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The percentile value in the range 0.)=PERCENTILE(array, k)
• array (required): The array or range of data that defines relative standing.
• k (required): The percentile value in the range 0.
338PERCENTILE.EXCStatisticalReturns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from -1=PERCENTILE.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing.)=PERCENTILE.EXC(array, k)
• array (required): The array or range of data that defines relative standing.
• k (required): The array or range of data that defines relative standing.
339PERCENTILE.INCStatisticalReturns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0=PERCENTILE.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data that defines relative standing., kk [required]: The percentile value in the range 0.)=PERCENTILE.INC(array, k)
• array (required): The array or range of data that defines relative standing.
• k (required): The percentile value in the range 0.
340PERCENTRANKCompatibilityReturns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set=PERCENTRANK(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing., xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])=PERCENTRANK(array, x, [significance])
• array (required): The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing.
• x (required): The value for which you want to know the rank.
• significance (optional): A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.
341PERCENTRANK.EXCStatisticalReturns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0=PERCENTRANK.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing

, xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])
=PERCENTRANK.EXC(array, x, [significance])
• array (required): The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing

• x (required): The value for which you want to know the rank.
• significance (optional): A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.
342PERCENTRANK.INCStatisticalReturns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0=PERCENTRANK.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing., xx [required]: The value for which you want to know the rank., [significancesignificance [optional]: A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.])=PERCENTRANK.INC(array, x, [significance])
• array (required): The array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing.
• x (required): The value for which you want to know the rank.
• significance (optional): A value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value.
343PERMUTStatisticalReturns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects=PERMUT(numbernumber [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.)=PERMUT(number, number_chosen)
• number_chosen (required): An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.
• number (required): An integer that describes the number of objects.
344PERMUTATIONAStatisticalReturns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects=PERMUTATIONA(numbernumber [required]: An integer that describes the total number of objects., number_chosennumber_chosen [required]: An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.)=PERMUTATIONA(number, number_chosen)
• number_chosen (required): An integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation.
• number (required): An integer that describes the total number of objects.
345PHIStatisticalReturns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution=PHI(xx [required]: X is the number for which you want the density of the standard normal distribution.)=PHI(x)
• x (required): X is the number for which you want the density of the standard normal distribution.
346PHONETICTextExtracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string=PHONETIC(referencereference [required]: Text string or a reference to a single cell or a range of cells that contain a furigana text string.)=PHONETIC(reference)
• reference (required): Text string or a reference to a single cell or a range of cells that contain a furigana text string.
347PIMath and TrigonometryReturns pi (3.14159265358979) with 15 digits=PI()=PI()
348PMTFinancialCalculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate=PMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate for the loan., npernper [required]: The total number of payments for the loan., pvpv [required]: The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now; also known as the principal., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate for the loan.
• nper (required): The total number of payments for the loan.
• pv (required): The present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now; also known as the principal.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
349POISSONCompatibilityReturns the Poisson distribution=POISSON(xx [required]: The number of events., meanmean [required]: The expected numeric value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.)=POISSON(x, mean, cumulative)
• x (required): The number of events.
• mean (required): The expected numeric value.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.
350POISSON.DISTStatisticalReturns the Poisson distribution=POISSON.DIST(xx [required]: The number of events., meanmean [required]: The expected numeric value., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.)=POISSON.DIST(x, mean, cumulative)
• x (required): The number of events.
• mean (required): The expected numeric value.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned.
351POWERMath and TrigonometryReturns the result of a number raised to a power=POWER(numbernumber [required]: The base number., powerpower [required]: The exponent to which the base number is raised.)=POWER(number, power)
• number (required): The base number.
• power (required): The exponent to which the base number is raised.
352PPMTFinancialReturns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate=PPMT(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., perper [required]: Specifies the period and must be in the range 1 to nper., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pvpv [required]: The total amount that a series of future payments is worth now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=PPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate per period.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods in an annuity.
• per (required): Specifies the period and must be in the range 1 to nper.
• pv (required): The total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
353PRICEFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest=PRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=PRICE(settlement, maturity, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• rate (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
354PRICEDISCFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security=PRICEDISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The security's discount rate., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=PRICEDISC(settlement, maturity, discount, redemption, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• discount (required): The security's discount rate.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
355PRICEMATFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity=PRICEMAT(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate at date of issue., yldyld [required]: The security's annual yield., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=PRICEMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, yld, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• issue (required): The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate at date of issue.
• yld (required): The security's annual yield.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
356PROBStatisticalReturns the probability that values in a range are between two limits=PROB(x_rangex_range [required]: The range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities., prob_rangeprob_range [required]: A set of probabilities associated with values in x_range., [lower_limitlower_limit [optional]: The lower bound on the value for which you want a probability.], [upper_limitupper_limit [optional]: The optional upper bound on the value for which you want a probability.])=PROB(x_range, prob_range, [lower_limit], [upper_limit])
• x_range (required): The range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities.
• prob_range (required): A set of probabilities associated with values in x_range.
• lower_limit (optional): The lower bound on the value for which you want a probability.
• upper_limit (optional): The optional upper bound on the value for which you want a probability.
357PRODUCTMath and TrigonometryMultiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product. =PRODUCT(number1number1 [required]: The first number or range that you want to multiply., [number2], ...)=PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number or range that you want to multiply.
358PROPERTextCapitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter=PROPER(texttext [required]: Text enclosed in quotation marks, a formula that returns text, or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize.)=PROPER(text)
• text (required): Text enclosed in quotation marks, a formula that returns text, or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize.
359PVFinancialCalculates the present value of a loan or an investment, based on a constant interest rate=PV(raterate [required]: The interest rate per period., npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.])=PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])
• rate (required): The interest rate per period.
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods in an annuity.
• pmt (required): The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
360QUARTILECompatibilityReturns the quartile of a data set=QUARTILE(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)=QUARTILE(array, quart)
• array (required): The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value.
• quart (required): Indicates which value to return.
361QUARTILE.EXCStatisticalReturns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0=QUARTILE.EXC(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)=QUARTILE.EXC(array, quart)
• array (required): The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value.
• quart (required): Indicates which value to return.
362QUARTILE.INCStatisticalReturns the quartile of a data set, based on percentile values from 0=QUARTILE.INC(arrayarray [required]: The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value., quartquart [required]: Indicates which value to return.)=QUARTILE.INC(array, quart)
• array (required): The array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value.
• quart (required): Indicates which value to return.
363QUOTIENTMath and TrigonometryReturns the integer portion of a division=QUOTIENT(numeratornumerator [required]: The dividend., denominatordenominator [required]: The divisor)=QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)
• numerator (required): The dividend.
• denominator (required): The divisor
• angle (required): An angle in degrees that you want to convert.
365RANDMath and TrigonometryConverts degrees to radians=RAND()=RAND()
366RANDARRAYMath and TrigonometryReturns an array of random numbers. =RANDARRAY([rowsrows [optional]: The number of rows to be returned], [columnscolumns [optional]: The number of columns to be returned], [minmin [optional]: The minimum number you would like returned], [maxmax [optional]: The maximum number you would like returned], [whole_numberwhole_number [optional]: Return a whole number or a decimal value])=RANDARRAY([rows], [columns], [min], [max], [whole_number])
• rows (optional): The number of rows to be returned
• columns (optional): The number of columns to be returned
• min (optional): The minimum number you would like returned
• max (optional): The maximum number you would like returned
• whole_number (optional): Return a whole number or a decimal value
367RANDBETWEENMath and TrigonometryReturns a random integer number between the numbers you specify=RANDBETWEEN(bottombottom [required]: The smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return., toptop [required]: The largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.)=RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top)
• bottom (required): The smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.
• top (required): The largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.
368RANKCompatibilityReturns the rank of a number in a list of numbers=RANK(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])=RANK(number, ref, [order])
• number (required): The number whose rank you want to find.
• ref (required): An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers.
• order (optional): A number specifying how to rank number.
369RANK.AVGStatisticalReturns the rank of a number in a list of numbers: its size relative to other values in the list; if more than one value has the same rank, the average rank is returned=RANK.AVG(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])=RANK.AVG(number, ref, [order])
• number (required): The number whose rank you want to find.
• ref (required): An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers.
• order (optional): A number specifying how to rank number.
370RANK.EQStatisticalReturns the rank of a number in a list of numbers=RANK.EQ(numbernumber [required]: The number whose rank you want to find., refref [required]: An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers., [orderorder [optional]: A number specifying how to rank number.])=RANK.EQ(number, ref, [order])
• number (required): The number whose rank you want to find.
• ref (required): An array of, or a reference to, a list of numbers.
• order (optional): A number specifying how to rank number.
371RATEFinancialReturns the interest rate per period of an annuity=RATE(npernper [required]: The total number of payment periods in an annuity., pmtpmt [required]: The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity., pvpv [required]: The present value ??? the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now., [fvfv [optional]: The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.], [typetype [optional]: The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.], [guessguess [optional]: Your guess for what the rate will be.])=RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess])
• nper (required): The total number of payment periods in an annuity.
• pmt (required): The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity.
• pv (required): The present value ??? the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.
• fv (optional): The future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
• type (optional): The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
• guess (optional): Your guess for what the rate will be.
372RECEIVEDFinancialReturns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security=RECEIVED(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., investmentinvestment [required]: The amount invested in the security., discountdiscount [required]: The security's discount rate., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=RECEIVED(settlement, maturity, investment, discount, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• investment (required): The amount invested in the security.
• discount (required): The security's discount rate.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
373REGISTER.IDAdd-in and AutomationReturns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered=REGISTER.ID(module_textmodule_text [required]: Text specifying the name of the DLL that contains the function in Microsoft Excel for Windows., procedureprocedure [required]: Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows., [type_texttype_text [optional]: Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL.])=REGISTER.ID(module_text, procedure, [type_text])
• module_text (required): Text specifying the name of the DLL that contains the function in Microsoft Excel for Windows.
• procedure (required): Text specifying the name of the function in the DLL in Microsoft Excel for Windows.
• type_text (optional): Text specifying the data type of the return value and the data types of all arguments to the DLL.
374REPLACETextReplaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=REPLACE(old_textold_text [required]: Text in which you want to replace some characters., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text., num_charsnum_chars [required]: The number of characters in old_text that you want REPLACE to replace with new_text., new_textnew_text [required]: The text that will replace characters in old_text.)=REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text)
• start_num (required): The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text.
• num_chars (required): The number of characters in old_text that you want REPLACE to replace with new_text.
• new_text (required): The text that will replace characters in old_text.
• old_text (required): Text in which you want to replace some characters.
375REPLACEBTextReplaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=REPLACEB(old_textold_text [required]: Text in which you want to replace some characters., start_numstart_num [required]: The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text., num_bytesnum_bytes [required]: The number of bytes in old_text that you want REPLACEB to replace with, new_textnew_text [required]: The text that will replace characters in old_text.)=REPLACEB(old_text, start_num, num_bytes, new_text)
• start_num (required): The position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text.
• num_bytes (required): The number of bytes in old_text that you want REPLACEB to replace with
• new_text (required): The text that will replace characters in old_text.
• old_text (required): Text in which you want to replace some characters.
376REPTTextRepeats text a given number of times=REPT(texttext [required]: The text you want to repeat., number_timesnumber_times [required]: A positive number specifying the number of times to repeat text.)=REPT(text, number_times)
• text (required): The text you want to repeat.
• number_times (required): A positive number specifying the number of times to repeat text.
377RIGHTTextReturns the last character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=RIGHT(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., [num_charsnum_chars [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHT to extract.])=RIGHT(text, [num_chars])
• text (required): The text string containing the characters you want to extract.
• num_chars (optional): Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHT to extract.
378RIGHTBTextReturns the last character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=RIGHTB(texttext [required]: The text string containing the characters you want to extract., [num_bytesnum_bytes [optional]: Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHTB to extract, based on bytes. ])=RIGHTB(text, [num_bytes])
• text (required): The text string containing the characters you want to extract.
• num_bytes (optional): Specifies the number of characters you want RIGHTB to extract, based on bytes.
379ROMANMath and TrigonometryConverts an arabic numeral to roman, as text=ROMAN(numbernumber [required]: The Arabic numeral you want converted., [formform [optional]: A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want.])=ROMAN(number, [form])
• number (required): The Arabic numeral you want converted.
• form (optional): A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want.
380ROUNDMath and TrigonometryRounds a number to a specified number of digits=ROUND(numbernumber [required]: The number that you want to round., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.)=ROUND(number, num_digits)
• number (required): The number that you want to round.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.
381ROUNDDOWNMath and TrigonometryRounds a number down, toward zero=ROUNDDOWN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded down., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)=ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)
• number (required): Any real number that you want rounded down.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round number.
382ROUNDUPMath and TrigonometryRounds a number up, away from 0 (zero)=ROUNDUP(numbernumber [required]: Any real number that you want rounded up., num_digitsnum_digits [required]: The number of digits to which you want to round number.)=ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)
• number (required): Any real number that you want rounded up.
• num_digits (required): The number of digits to which you want to round number.
383ROWLookup and ReferenceReturns the row number of a reference=ROW([referencereference [optional]: The cell or range of cells for which you want the row number.])=ROW([reference])
• reference (optional): The cell or range of cells for which you want the row number.
384ROWSLookup and ReferenceReturns the number of rows in a reference or array=ROWS(arrayarray [required]: An array, an array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of rows.)=ROWS(array)
• array (required): An array, an array formula, or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of rows.
385RRIFinancialReturns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment=RRI(npernper [required]: Nper is the number of periods for the investment., pvpv [required]: Pv is the present value of the investment., fvfv [required]: Fv is the future value of the investment.)=RRI(nper, pv, fv)
• nper (required): Nper is the number of periods for the investment.
• pv (required): Pv is the present value of the investment.
• fv (required): Fv is the future value of the investment.
386RSQStatisticalReturns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's=RSQ(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or range of data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: An array or range of data points.)=RSQ(known_y's, known_x's)
• known_y's (required): An array or range of data points.
• known_x's (required): An array or range of data points.
387RTDLookup and ReferenceRetrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation=RTD(progidprogid [required]: The name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation add-in that has been installed on the local computer., serverserver [required]: Name of the server where the add-in should be run., topic1topic1 [required]: Parameter that represent a unique piece of real-time data, [topic2topic2 [optional]: Additional parameters], ...)=RTD(progid, server, topic1, [topic2], ...)
• topic1 (required): Parameter that represent a unique piece of real-time data
• progid (required): The name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation add-in that has been installed on the local computer.
• server (required): Name of the server where the add-in should be run.
388SEARCHTextLocate one text string within a second text string, and return starting position of second text string. Counts each single- or double-byte character as 1=SEARCH(find_textfind_text [required]: The text that you want to find (needle), within_textwithin_text [required]: The text in which you want to search for (haystack), [start_numstart_num [optional]: Starting position of search ])=SEARCH(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
• find_text (required): The text that you want to find (needle)
• within_text (required): The text in which you want to search for (haystack)
• start_num (optional): Starting position of search
389SEARCHBTextLocate one text string within a second text string, and return starting position of second text string. Counts double-byte charaters as 2 if supported by language setting=SEARCHB(find_textfind_text [required]: The text that you want to find (needle), within_textwithin_text [required]: The text in which you want to search for (haystack), [start_numstart_num [optional]: Starting position of search ])=SEARCHB(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
• find_text (required): The text that you want to find (needle)
• within_text (required): The text in which you want to search for (haystack)
• start_num (optional): Starting position of search
390SECMath and TrigonometryReturns the secant of an angle=SEC(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the secant.)=SEC(number)
• number (required): Number is the angle in radians for which you want the secant.
391SECHMath and TrigonometryReturns the hyperbolic secant of an angle=SECH(numbernumber [required]: Number is the angle in radians for which you want the hyperbolic secant.)=SECH(number)
• number (required): Number is the angle in radians for which you want the hyperbolic secant.
392SECONDDate and TimeReturns the seconds of a time value=SECOND(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The time that contains the seconds you want to find.)=SECOND(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The time that contains the seconds you want to find.
393SEQUENCEMath and TrigonometryGenerates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4=SEQUENCE(rowsrows [required]: The number of rows to be returned, [columnscolumns [required]: The number of columns to be returned], [startstart [optional]: Sequence start value], [stepstep [optional]: Sequence Increments])=SEQUENCE(rows, [columns], [start], [step])
• rows (required): The number of rows to be returned
• columns (required): The number of columns to be returned
• start (optional): Sequence start value
• step (optional): Sequence Increments
394SERIESSUMMath and TrigonometryReturns the sum of a power series based on approximation by defined power series expansion formula=SERIESSUM(xx [required]: The input value to the power series., nn [required]: The initial power to which you want to raise x., mm [required]: The step by which to increase n for each term in the series., coefficientscoefficients [required]: A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.)=SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients)
• coefficients (required): A set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.
• x (required): The input value to the power series.
• n (required): The initial power to which you want to raise x.
• m (required): The step by which to increase n for each term in the series.
395SHEETIS Functions and InformationReturns the sheet number of the reference sheet=SHEET(valuevalue [required]: Value is the name of a sheet or a reference for which you want the sheet number.)=SHEET(value)
• value (required): Value is the name of a sheet or a reference for which you want the sheet number.
396SHEETSIS Functions and InformationReturns the number of sheets in a reference=SHEETS(referencereference [required]: Reference is a reference for which you want to know the number of sheets it contains.)=SHEETS(reference)
• reference (required): Reference is a reference for which you want to know the number of sheets it contains.
397SIGNMath and TrigonometryDetermines the sign of a number=SIGN(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=SIGN(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
398SINMath and TrigonometryReturns the sine of the given angle=SIN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the sine.)=SIN(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the sine.
399SINHMath and TrigonometryReturns the hyperbolic sine of a number=SINH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=SINH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
400SKEWStatisticalReturns the skewness of a distribution=SKEW(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate skewness., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=SKEW(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want to calculate skewness.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
401SKEW.PStatisticalReturns the skewness of a distribution based on a population=SKEW.P(number1number1 [required]: Number for which you want to calculate population skewness., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=SKEW.P(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number for which you want to calculate population skewness.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
402SLNFinancialReturns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period=SLN(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).)=SLN(cost, salvage, life)
• cost (required): The initial cost of the asset.
• salvage (required): The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
• life (required): The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
403SLOPEStatisticalReturns the slope of the linear regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's=SLOPE(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or cell range of numeric dependent data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: The set of independent data points.)=SLOPE(known_y's, known_x's)
• known_y's (required): An array or cell range of numeric dependent data points.
• known_x's (required): The set of independent data points.
404SMALLStatisticalReturns the k-th smallest value in a data set=SMALL(arrayarray [required]: An array or range of numerical data for which you want to determine the k-th smallest value., kk [required]: The position (from the smallest) in the array or range of data to return.)=SMALL(array, k)
• array (required): An array or range of numerical data for which you want to determine the k-th smallest value.
• k (required): The position (from the smallest) in the array or range of data to return.
405SORTLookup and ReferenceSorts the contents of a range or array=SORT(arrayarray [required]: The range, or array to sort, [sort_indexsort_index [required]: A number indicating the row or column to sort by], [sort_ordersort_order [optional]: Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), -1 for descending order], [by_colby_col [optional]: A logical value indicating the desired sort direction; FALSE to sort by row (default), TRUE to sort by colum])=SORT(array, [sort_index], [sort_order], [by_col])
• array (required): The range, or array to sort
• sort_index (required): A number indicating the row or column to sort by
• sort_order (optional): Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), -1 for descending order
• by_col (optional): A logical value indicating the desired sort direction; FALSE to sort by row (default), TRUE to sort by colum
406SORTBYLookup and ReferenceSorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array=SORTBY(arrayarray [required]: The range, or array to sort, by_array1by_array1 [required]: A number indicating the row or column to sort by, [sort_order1sort_order1 [optional]: Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), -1 for descending order], [by_array2, sort_order2by_array2, sort_order2 [optional]: Additional ranges/arrays and sort order]=SORTBY(array, by_array1, [sort_order1], [by_array2, sort_order2]
• array (required): The range, or array to sort
• by_array1 (required): A number indicating the row or column to sort by
• sort_order1 (optional): Sort order: 1 for ascending order (default), -1 for descending order
• by_array2, sort_order2 (optional): Additional ranges/arrays and sort order
407SQRTMath and TrigonometryReturns a positive square root=SQRT(numbernumber [required]: The number for which you want the square root.)=SQRT(number)
• number (required): The number for which you want the square root.
408SQRTPIMath and TrigonometryReturns the square root of (number * pi)=SQRTPI(numbernumber [required]: The number by which pi is multiplied.)=SQRTPI(number)
• number (required): The number by which pi is multiplied.
409STANDARDIZEStatisticalReturns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev=STANDARDIZE(xx [required]: The value you want to normalize., meanmean [required]: The arithmetic mean of the distribution., standard_devstandard_dev [required]: The standard deviation of the distribution.)=STANDARDIZE(x, mean, standard_dev)
• x (required): The value you want to normalize.
• mean (required): The arithmetic mean of the distribution.
• standard_dev (required): The standard deviation of the distribution.
410STDEVCompatibilityEstimates standard deviation based on a sample=STDEV(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers to a sample of a population], ...)=STDEV(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional numbers to a sample of a population
411STDEV.PStatisticalCalculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments (ignores logical values and text)=STDEV.P(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional numbers arguments], ...)=STDEV.P(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional numbers arguments
412STDEV.SStatisticalEstimates standard deviation based on a sample (ignores logical values and text in the sample)=STDEV.S(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=STDEV.S(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
413STDEVAStatisticalEstimates standard deviation based on a sample=STDEVA(value1, [value2], ...)=STDEVA(value1, [value2], ...)
414STDEVPCompatibilityCalculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments=STDEVP(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=STDEVP(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
415STDEVPAStatisticalCalculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments, including text and logical values=STDEVPA(value1value1 [required]: The first value corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional values], ...)=STDEVPA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first value corresponding to a sample of a population.
• value2 (optional): Additional optional values
416STEYXStatisticalReturns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression=STEYX(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: An array or range of dependent data points., known_x'sknown_x's [required]: An array or range of independent data points.)=STEYX(known_y's, known_x's)
• known_y's (required): An array or range of dependent data points.
• known_x's (required): An array or range of independent data points.
417SUBSTITUTETextSubstitutes new_text for old_text in a text string=SUBSTITUTE(texttext [required]: The text or the reference to a cell containing text for which you want to substitute characters., old_textold_text [required]: The text you want to replace., new_textnew_text [required]: The text you want to replace old_text with., [instance_numinstance_num [optional]: Specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text.])=SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])
• old_text (required): The text you want to replace.
• new_text (required): The text you want to replace old_text with.
• instance_num (optional): Specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text.
• text (required): The text or the reference to a cell containing text for which you want to substitute characters.
418SUBTOTALMath and TrigonometryReturns a subtotal in a list or database=SUBTOTAL(function_numfunction_num [required]: The number 1-11 or 101-111 that specifies the function to use for the subtotal., ref1ref1 [required]: The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal., [ref2ref2 [optional]: Additional optional references], ...)=SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, [ref2], ...)
• function_num (required): The number 1-11 or 101-111 that specifies the function to use for the subtotal.
• ref1 (required): The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal.
• ref2 (optional): Additional optional references
419SUMMath and TrigonometryAdds values, cell references or ranges or a mix of all three=SUM(number1number1 [required]: First number to add,[number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers],...)=SUM(number1,[number2],...)
• number1 (required): First number to add
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
420SUMIFMath and TrigonometrySum the values in a range that meet criteria that you specify=SUMIF(rangerange [required]: The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria., criteriacriteria [required]: The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added., [sum_rangesum_range [optional]: The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument.])=SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])
• range (required): The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria.
• criteria (required): The criteria in the form of a number, expression, a cell reference, text, or a function that defines which cells will be added.
• sum_range (optional): The actual cells to add, if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument.
421SUMIFSMath and TrigonometrySums all of its arguments that meet multiple criteria. =SUMIFS(sum_rangesum_range [required]: The range of cells to sum., criteria_range1criteria_range1 [optional]: The range that is tested using CRITERIA1, criteria1criteria1 [optional]: The criteria that defines which cells in CRITERIA_RANGE1 will be added., [criteria_range2, criteria2criteria_range2, criteria2 [optional]: Additional optional critiera and criteria ranges], ...)=SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
• sum_range (required): The range of cells to sum.
• criteria_range1 (optional): The range that is tested using CRITERIA1
• criteria1 (optional): The criteria that defines which cells in CRITERIA_RANGE1 will be added.
• criteria_range2, criteria2 (optional): Additional optional critiera and criteria ranges
422SUMPRODUCTMath and TrigonometryReturns the sum of the products of corresponding ranges or arrays=SUMPRODUCT(array1array1 [required]: The first array argument whose components you want to multiply and then add., [array2array2 [optional]: Additional optional array argument], ...)=SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], ...)
• array1 (required): The first array argument whose components you want to multiply and then add.
• array2 (optional): Additional optional array argument
423SUMSQMath and TrigonometryReturns the sum of the squares of the arguments=SUMSQ(number1number1 [required]: Number arguments for which you want the sum of the squares, [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers], ...)=SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): Number arguments for which you want the sum of the squares
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers
424SUMX2MY2Math and TrigonometryReturns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMX2MY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
425SUMX2PY2Math and TrigonometryReturns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMX2PY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
426SUMXMY2Math and TrigonometryReturns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays=SUMXMY2(array_xarray_x [required]: The first array or range of values., array_yarray_y [required]: The second array or range of values.)=SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y)
• array_x (required): The first array or range of values.
• array_y (required): The second array or range of values.
427SWITCHLogicalEvaluates one expression against a list of values, and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. =SWITCH(expressionexpression [required]: Expression (such as a number, date or some text) that will be compared against values, value1value1 [required]: First value that will be compared against expression., result1result1 [required]: First result to be returned when the corresponding value matches expression, [default_or_value2, result2default_or_value2, result2 [optional]: Optional default value if no matches are found, or additional optional values/ result]=SWITCH(expression, value1, result1, [default_or_value2, result2]
• expression (required): Expression (such as a number, date or some text) that will be compared against values
• value1 (required): First value that will be compared against expression.
• result1 (required): First result to be returned when the corresponding value matches expression
• default_or_value2, result2 (optional): Optional default value if no matches are found, or additional optional values/ result
428SYDFinancialReturns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period=SYD(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., perper [required]: The period and must use the same units as life.)=SYD(cost, salvage, life, per)
• cost (required): The initial cost of the asset.
• salvage (required): The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
• life (required): The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
• per (required): The period and must use the same units as life.
429TTextReturns the text referred to by value=T(valuevalue [required]: The value you want to test.)=T(value)
• value (required): The value you want to test.
430T.DISTStatisticalReturns the Student's left-tailed t-distribution=T.DIST(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution

, deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom., cumulativecumulative [required]: A logical value that determines the form of the function.)
=T.DIST(x, deg_freedom, cumulative)
• x (required): The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution

• deg_freedom (required): An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.
• cumulative (required): A logical value that determines the form of the function.
431T.DIST.2TStatisticalReturns the two-tailed Student's t-distribution=T.DIST.2T(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.)=T.DIST.2T(x, deg_freedom)
• x (required): The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.
432T.DIST.RTStatisticalReturns the right-tailed Student's t-distribution=T.DIST.RT(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.)=T.DIST.RT(x, deg_freedom)
• x (required): The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.
433T.INVStatisticalReturns the two-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution=T.INV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the Student's t-distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)=T.INV(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): The probability associated with the Student's t-distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.
434T.INV.2TStatisticalReturns the two-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution=T.INV.2T(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the Student's t-distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)=T.INV.2T(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): The probability associated with the Student's t-distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.
435T.TESTStatisticalReturns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test=T.TEST(array1array1 [required]: The first data set., array2array2 [required]: The second data set., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails., typetype [required]: The kind of t-Test to perform.)=T.TEST(array1, array2, tails, type)
• array1 (required): The first data set.
• array2 (required): The second data set.
• tails (required): Specifies the number of distribution tails.
• type (required): The kind of t-Test to perform.
436TANMath and TrigonometryReturns the tangent of the given angle=TAN(numbernumber [required]: The angle in radians for which you want the tangent.)=TAN(number)
• number (required): The angle in radians for which you want the tangent.
437TANHMath and TrigonometryReturns the hyperbolic tangent of a number=TANH(numbernumber [required]: Any real number.)=TANH(number)
• number (required): Any real number.
438TBILLEQFinancialReturns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill=TBILLEQ(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The Treasury bill's discount rate.)=TBILLEQ(settlement, maturity, discount)
• settlement (required): The Treasury bill's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The Treasury bill's maturity date.
• discount (required): The Treasury bill's discount rate.
439TBILLPRICEFinancialReturns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill=TBILLPRICE(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., discountdiscount [required]: The Treasury bill's discount rate.)=TBILLPRICE(settlement, maturity, discount)
• settlement (required): The Treasury bill's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The Treasury bill's maturity date.
• discount (required): The Treasury bill's discount rate.
440TBILLYIELDFinancialReturns the yield for a Treasury bill=TBILLYIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The Treasury bill's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The Treasury bill's maturity date., prpr [required]: The Treasury bill's price per \$100 face value.)=TBILLYIELD(settlement, maturity, pr)
• settlement (required): The Treasury bill's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The Treasury bill's maturity date.
• pr (required): The Treasury bill's price per \$100 face value.
441TDISTCompatibilityReturns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed=TDIST(xx [required]: The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails to return.)=TDIST(x, deg_freedom, tails)
• x (required): The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.
• tails (required): Specifies the number of distribution tails to return.
442TEXTTextChanges the way a number appears by applying formatting to it with format codes=TEXT(valuevalue [required]: A numeric value that you want to be converted into text., format_textformat_text [required]: A text string that defines the formatting that you want to be applied to the supplied value.)=TEXT(value, format_text)
• value (required): A numeric value that you want to be converted into text.
• format_text (required): A text string that defines the formatting that you want to be applied to the supplied value.
443TEXTJOINTextCombines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined=TEXTJOIN(delimiterdelimiter [required]: A text string, either empty, or one or more characters enclosed by double quotes, or a reference to a valid text string., ignore_emptyignore_empty [required]: If TRUE, ignores empty cells., text1text1 [required]: Text item to be joined., [text2text2 [optional]: Additional optional text items], ...)=TEXTJOIN(delimiter, ignore_empty, text1, [text2], ...)
• delimiter (required): A text string, either empty, or one or more characters enclosed by double quotes, or a reference to a valid text string.
• ignore_empty (required): If TRUE, ignores empty cells.
• text1 (required): Text item to be joined.
• text2 (optional): Additional optional text items
444TIMEDate and TimeReturns the decimal number for a particular time=TIME(hourhour [required]: A number from 0 (zero) to 32767 representing the hour., minuteminute [required]: A number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute., secondsecond [required]: A number from 0 to 32767 representing the second.)=TIME(hour, minute, second)
• hour (required): A number from 0 (zero) to 32767 representing the hour.
• minute (required): A number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute.
• second (required): A number from 0 to 32767 representing the second.
445TIMEVALUEDate and TimeReturns the decimal number of the time represented by a text string=TIMEVALUE(time_texttime_text [required]: A text string that represents a time in any one of the Microsoft Excel time formats; for example, "6:45 PM" and "18:45" text strings within quotation marks that represent time.)=TIMEVALUE(time_text)
• time_text (required): A text string that represents a time in any one of the Microsoft Excel time formats; for example, "6:45 PM" and "18:45" text strings within quotation marks that represent time.
446TINVCompatibilityReturns the two-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution=TINV(probabilityprobability [required]: The probability associated with the two-tailed Student's t-distribution., deg_freedomdeg_freedom [required]: The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.)=TINV(probability, deg_freedom)
• probability (required): The probability associated with the two-tailed Student's t-distribution.
• deg_freedom (required): The number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution.
447TODAYDate and TimeReturns the serial number of the current date=TODAY()=TODAY()
448TRANSPOSELookup and ReferenceReturns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range, or vice ersa. =TRANSPOSE(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of cells to transpose. )=TRANSPOSE(array)
• array (required): The array or range of cells to transpose.
449TRENDStatisticalReturns values along a linear trend=TREND(known_y'sknown_y's [required]: The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = mx + b, [known_x'sknown_x's [optional]: An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b], [new_x'snew_x's [optional]: New x-values for which you want TREND to return corresponding y-values], [constconst [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0])=TREND(known_y's, [known_x's], [new_x's], [const])
• known_y's (required): The set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = mx + b
• known_x's (optional): An optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b
• new_x's (optional): New x-values for which you want TREND to return corresponding y-values
• const (optional): A logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0
450TRIMTextRemoves all spaces from text except for single spaces between words=TRIM(texttext [required]: The text from which you want spaces removed.)=TRIM(text)
• text (required): The text from which you want spaces removed.
451TRIMMEANStatisticalReturns the mean of the interior of a data set=TRIMMEAN(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of values to trim and average., percentpercent [required]: The fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation.)=TRIMMEAN(array, percent)
• array (required): The array or range of values to trim and average.
• percent (required): The fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation.
452TRUELogicalReturns the logical value TRUE=TRUE()=TRUE()
453TRUNCMath and TrigonometryTruncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number=TRUNC(numbernumber [required]: The number you want to truncate., [num_digitsnum_digits [optional]: A number specifying the precision of the truncation.])=TRUNC(number, [num_digits])
• number (required): The number you want to truncate.
• num_digits (optional): A number specifying the precision of the truncation.
454TTESTCompatibilityReturns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test. =TTEST(array1array1 [required]: The first data set., array2array2 [required]: The second data set., tailstails [required]: Specifies the number of distribution tails., typetype [required]: The kind of t-Test to perform.)=TTEST(array1, array2, tails, type)
• array1 (required): The first data set.
• array2 (required): The second data set.
• tails (required): Specifies the number of distribution tails.
• type (required): The kind of t-Test to perform.
455TYPEIS Functions and InformationReturns the type of value=TYPE(valuevalue [required]: Can be any Microsoft Excel value, such as a number, text, logical value, and so on.)=TYPE(value)
• value (required): Can be any Microsoft Excel value, such as a number, text, logical value, and so on.
456UNICHARTextReturns the Unicode character that is referenced by the given numeric value=UNICHAR(numbernumber [required]: Number is the Unicode number that represents the character.)=UNICHAR(number)
• number (required): Number is the Unicode number that represents the character.
457UNICODETextReturns the number (code point) corresponding to the first character of the text=UNICODE(texttext [required]: Text is the character for which you want the Unicode value.)=UNICODE(text)
• text (required): Text is the character for which you want the Unicode value.
458UNIQUELookup and ReferenceReturns a list of unique values in a list or range=UNIQUE(arrayarray [required]: The range or array from which to return unique rows or columns,[by_colby_col [optional]: A logical value indicating how to compare. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.],[exactly_onceexactly_once [optional]: A logical value indicating rows or colums that occur exactly. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.])=UNIQUE(array,[by_col],[exactly_once])
• array (required): The range or array from which to return unique rows or columns
• by_col (optional): A logical value indicating how to compare. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.
• exactly_once (optional): A logical value indicating rows or colums that occur exactly. TRUE for columns/FALSE for rows.
459UPPERTextConverts text to uppercase=UPPER(texttext [required]: The text you want converted to uppercase.)=UPPER(text)
• text (required): The text you want converted to uppercase.
460VALUETextConverts a text string that represents a number to a number=VALUE(texttext [required]: The text enclosed in quotation marks or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to convert.)=VALUE(text)
• text (required): The text enclosed in quotation marks or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to convert.
461VALUETOTEXTTextReturns text from any specified value=VALUETOTEXT(valuevalue [required]: The value to return as text., [formatformat [optional]: The format of the returned data, one of two values:])=VALUETOTEXT(value, [format])
• value (required): The value to return as text.
• format (optional): The format of the returned data, one of two values:
462VARCompatibilityEstimates variance based on a sample=VAR(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=VAR(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
463VAR.PStatisticalCalculates variance based on the entire population (ignores logical values and text in the population)=VAR.P(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=VAR.P(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
464VAR.SStatisticalEstimates variance based on a sample (ignores logical values and text in the sample)=VAR.S(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=VAR.S(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a sample of a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
465VARAStatisticalEstimates variance based on a sample=VARA(value1value1 [required]: The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional value arguments.], ...)=VARA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population.
• value2 (optional): Additional optional value arguments.
466VARPCompatibilityCalculates variance based on the entire population=VARP(number1number1 [required]: The first number argument corresponding to a population., [number2number2 [optional]: Additional optional numbers.], ...)=VARP(number1, [number2], ...)
• number1 (required): The first number argument corresponding to a population.
• number2 (optional): Additional optional numbers.
467VARPAStatisticalCalculates variance based on the entire population=VARPA(value1value1 [required]: The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population., [value2value2 [optional]: Additional optional value arguments.], ...)=VARPA(value1, [value2], ...)
• value1 (required): The first value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population.
• value2 (optional): Additional optional value arguments.
468VDBFinancialReturns the depreciation of an asset for any period you specify, including partial periods, using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify=VDB(costcost [required]: The initial cost of the asset., salvagesalvage [required]: The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset)., lifelife [required]: The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset)., start_periodstart_period [required]: The starting period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., end_periodend_period [required]: The ending period for which you want to calculate the depreciation., [factorfactor [optional]: The rate at which the balance declines.], [no_switchno_switch [optional]: A logical value specifying whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.])=VDB(cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, [factor], [no_switch])
• cost (required): The initial cost of the asset.
• salvage (required): The value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
• life (required): The number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
• start_period (required): The starting period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.
• end_period (required): The ending period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.
• factor (optional): The rate at which the balance declines.
• no_switch (optional): A logical value specifying whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.
469VLOOKUPLookup and ReferenceFind values in a table or a range by row=VLOOKUP (lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up which in first column of TABLE_ARRAY argument., table_arraytable_array [required]: The range of cells in which to search, col_index_numcol_index_num [optional]: Column number of value to return from TABLE_ARRAY argument, [range_lookuprange_lookup [optional]: Logical value to search approximate (1/TRUE) or exact (0/FALSE)])=VLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])
• lookup_value (required): The value to look up which in first column of TABLE_ARRAY argument.
• table_array (required): The range of cells in which to search
• col_index_num (optional): Column number of value to return from TABLE_ARRAY argument
• range_lookup (optional): Logical value to search approximate (1/TRUE) or exact (0/FALSE)
470WEBSERVICEWebReturns data from an URL=WEBSERVICE(urlurl [required]: The URL of the web service to be called)=WEBSERVICE(url)
• url (required): The URL of the web service to be called
471WEEKDAYDate and TimeReturns the day of the week corresponding to a date=WEEKDAY(serial_numberserial_number [required]: A sequential number that represents the date of the day you are trying to find., [return_typereturn_type [optional]: A number that determines the type of return value.])=WEEKDAY(serial_number, [return_type])
• serial_number (required): A sequential number that represents the date of the day you are trying to find.
• return_type (optional): A number that determines the type of return value.
472WEEKNUMDate and TimeReturns the week number of a specific date=WEEKNUM(serial_numberserial_number [required]: A date within the week., [return_typereturn_type [optional]: A number that determines on which day the week begins.])=WEEKNUM(serial_number, [return_type])
• serial_number (required): A date within the week.
• return_type (optional): A number that determines on which day the week begins.
473WEIBULLCompatibilityReturns the Weibull distribution=WEIBULL(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Determines the form of the function.)=WEIBULL(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• cumulative (required): Determines the form of the function.
474WEIBULL.DISTStatisticalReturns the Weibull distribution=WEIBULL.DIST(xx [required]: The value at which to evaluate the function., alphaalpha [required]: A parameter to the distribution., betabeta [required]: A parameter to the distribution., cumulativecumulative [required]: Determines the form of the function.)=WEIBULL.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
• x (required): The value at which to evaluate the function.
• alpha (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• beta (required): A parameter to the distribution.
• cumulative (required): Determines the form of the function.
475WORKDAYDate and TimeReturns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date)=WORKDAY(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., daysdays [required]: The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date., [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.])=WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays])
• start_date (required): A date that represents the start date.
• days (required): The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date.
• holidays (optional): An optional list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays.
476WORKDAY.INTLDate and TimeReturns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays with custom weekend parameters=WORKDAY.INTL(start_datestart_date [required]: The start date, truncated to integer., daysdays [required]: The number of workdays before or after the start_date., [weekendweekend [optional]: Indicates the days of the week that are weekend days and are not considered working days.], [holidaysholidays [optional]: An optional set of one or more dates that are to be excluded from the working day calendar.])=WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, days, [weekend], [holidays])
• start_date (required): The start date, truncated to integer.
• days (required): The number of workdays before or after the start_date.
• weekend (optional): Indicates the days of the week that are weekend days and are not considered working days.
• holidays (optional): An optional set of one or more dates that are to be excluded from the working day calendar.
477XIRRFinancialReturns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic=XIRR(valuesvalues [required]: A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates., datesdates [required]: A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments., [guessguess [optional]: A number that you guess is close to the result of XIRR.])=XIRR(values, dates, [guess])
• values (required): A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates.
• dates (required): A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments.
• guess (optional): A number that you guess is close to the result of XIRR.
478XLOOKUPLookup and ReferenceFind values in a table or a range by row=XLOOKUP(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up, lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: Array or range to search, return_arrayreturn_array [required]: Array or range to return, [if_not_foundif_not_found [optional]: Value to return if match is not found], [match_modematch_mode [optional]: Match mode 0, 1, -1, or 2], [search_modesearch_mode [optional]: Search mode 0, 1, -1, 2, or -2]) =XLOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_array, return_array, [if_not_found], [match_mode], [search_mode])
• lookup_value (required): The value to look up
• lookup_array (required): Array or range to search
• return_array (required): Array or range to return
• match_mode (optional): Match mode 0, 1, -1, or 2
• search_mode (optional): Search mode 0, 1, -1, 2, or -2
479XMATCHLookup and referenceSearches for a specified item in an array or range of cells, and then returns the item's relative position=XMATCH(lookup_valuelookup_value [required]: The value to look up, lookup_arraylookup_array [required]: Array or range to search, [match_modematch_mode [optional]: Match mode 0, 1, -1, or 2], [search_modesearch_mode [optional]: Search mode 0, 1, -1, 2, or -2]) =XMATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_mode], [search_mode])
• lookup_value (required): The value to look up
• lookup_array (required): Array or range to search
• match_mode (optional): Match mode 0, 1, -1, or 2
• search_mode (optional): Search mode 0, 1, -1, 2, or -2
480XNPVFinancialReturns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic=XNPV(raterate [required]: The discount rate to apply to the cash flows., valuesvalues [required]: A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates., datesdates [required]: A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments.)=XNPV(rate, values, dates)
• rate (required): The discount rate to apply to the cash flows.
• values (required): A series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates.
• dates (required): A schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments.
481XORLogicalReturns a logical Exclusive Or of all arguments=XOR(logical1logical1 [required]: The first logical condition., [logical2logical2 [optional]: Additional logical condition.], ...)=XOR(logical1, [logical2], ...)
• logical1 (required): The first logical condition.
• logical2 (optional): Additional logical condition.
482YEARDate and TimeReturns the year corresponding to a date=YEAR(serial_numberserial_number [required]: The date of the year you want to find.)=YEAR(serial_number)
• serial_number (required): The date of the year you want to find.
483YEARFRACDate and TimeReturns the year corresponding to a date=YEARFRAC(start_datestart_date [required]: A date that represents the start date., end_dateend_date [required]: A date that represents the end date., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis])
• start_date (required): A date that represents the start date.
• end_date (required): A date that represents the end date.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
484YIELDFinancialReturns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest=YIELD(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., raterate [required]: The security's annual coupon rate., prpr [required]: The security's price per \$100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., frequencyfrequency [required]: The number of coupon payments per year., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=YIELD(settlement, maturity, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• rate (required): The security's annual coupon rate.
• pr (required): The security's price per \$100 face value.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• frequency (required): The number of coupon payments per year.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
485YIELDDISCFinancialReturns the annual yield for a discounted security=YIELDDISC(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., prpr [required]: The security's price per \$100 face value., redemptionredemption [required]: The security's redemption value per \$100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=YIELDDISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• pr (required): The security's price per \$100 face value.
• redemption (required): The security's redemption value per \$100 face value.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
486YIELDMATFinancialReturns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity=YIELDMAT(settlementsettlement [required]: The security's settlement date., maturitymaturity [required]: The security's maturity date., issueissue [required]: The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number., raterate [required]: The security's interest rate at date of issue., prpr [required]: The security's price per \$100 face value., [basisbasis [optional]: The type of day count basis to use.])=YIELDMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, pr, [basis])
• settlement (required): The security's settlement date.
• maturity (required): The security's maturity date.
• issue (required): The security's issue date, expressed as a serial date number.
• rate (required): The security's interest rate at date of issue.
• pr (required): The security's price per \$100 face value.
• basis (optional): The type of day count basis to use.
487Z.TESTStatisticalReturns the one-tailed P-value of a z-test=Z.TEST(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data against which to test x., xx [required]: The value to test., [sigmasigma [optional]: The population (known) standard deviation.])=Z.TEST(array, x, [sigma])
• array (required): The array or range of data against which to test x.
• x (required): The value to test.
• sigma (optional): The population (known) standard deviation.
488ZTESTCompatibilityReturns the one-tailed P-value of a z-test=ZTEST(arrayarray [required]: The array or range of data against which to test x., xx [required]: The value to test., [sigmasigma [optional]: The population (known) standard deviation.])=ZTEST(array, x, [sigma])
• array (required): The array or range of data against which to test x.
• x (required): The value to test.
• sigma (optional): The population (known) standard deviation.

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